|Assumed office |
January 20, 2009
&00000000000000010000001 year, &0000000000000290000000290 days
|Vice President||Joe Biden|
|Preceded by||George W. Bush|
|In office |
January 3, 2005 – November 16, 2008
|Preceded by||Peter Fitzgerald|
|Succeeded by||Roland Burris|
|In office |
January 8, 1997 – November 4, 2004
|Preceded by||Alice Palmer|
|Succeeded by||Kwame Raoul|
|Born||August 4, 1961 (1961-08-04)  |
|Spouse(s)||Michelle Robinson Obama|
|Residence||White House (Official) |
Chicago, Illinois (Private)
|Alma mater||Occidental College |
Columbia University (B.A.)
Harvard Law School (J.D.)
|Occupation||Community organizer |
Constitutional law Professor
|Website||The White House |
Barack Hussein Obama II (i / /; born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as a United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned after his election to the presidency in November 2008.
A native of Honolulu, Hawaii, Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was the president of the Harvard Law Review. He was a community organizer in Chicago before earning his law degree. He worked as a civil rights attorney in Chicago and taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004.
Obama served three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. Following an unsuccessful bid against a Democratic incumbent for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 2000, he ran for United States Senate in 2004. Several events brought him to national attention during the campaign, including his victory in the March 2004 Democratic primary and his keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July 2004. He won election to the U.S. Senate in November 2004. His presidential campaign began in February 2007, and after a close campaign in the 2008 Democratic Party presidential primaries against Hillary Rodham Clinton, he won his party's nomination. In the 2008 general election, he defeated Republican nominee John McCain and was inaugurated as president on January 20, 2009.
As president, Obama signed economic stimulus legislation in the form of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in February 2009. Other domestic policy initiatives include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, a major piece of health care reform legislation which he signed into law in March 2010, and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, which forms part of his financial regulatory reform efforts, which he signed in July 2010. In foreign policy, Obama gradually withdrew combat troops from Iraq, increased troop levels in Afghanistan, and signed an arms control treaty with Russia. On October 9, 2009, Obama was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.
Early life and career
Obama was born August 4, 1961, at Kapi'olani Maternity & Gynecological Hospital in Honolulu, Hawaii. His mother, Stanley Ann Dunham, was born in Wichita, Kansas, of mostly English, some German,  and Irish descent. His great-great-great grandfather hailed from County Offaly. His father, Barack Obama, Sr., was a Luo from Nyang'oma Kogelo, Nyanza Province, Kenya. Obama is the first President to have been born in Hawaii. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Mānoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship. The couple married on February 2, 1961, but separated when Obama Sr. went to Harvard University on scholarship, and divorced in 1964. Obama Sr. remarried and returned to Kenya, visiting Barack in Hawaii only once, in 1971. He died in an automobile accident in 1982.
After her divorce, Dunham married Indonesian student Lolo Soetoro, who was attending college in Hawaii. When Suharto, a military leader in Soetoro's home country, came to power in 1967, all Indonesian students studying abroad were recalled, and the family moved to the Menteng neighborhood of Jakarta. From ages six to ten, Obama attended local schools in Jakarta, including Besuki Public School and St. Francis of Assisi School.
In 1971, Obama returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Armour Dunham, and attended Punahou School, a private college preparatory school, from the fifth grade until his graduation from high school in 1979. Obama's mother returned to Hawaii in 1972, remaining there until 1977 when she went back to Indonesia to work as an anthropological field worker. She finally returned to Hawaii in 1994 and lived there for one year, before dying of ovarian cancer.
Of his early childhood, Obama recalled, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me—that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk—barely registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage. Reflecting later on his formative years in Honolulu, Obama wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered—to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect—became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear." Obama has also written and talked about using alcohol, marijuana and cocaine during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind." At the 2008 Civil Forum on the Presidency, Obama identified his high-school drug use as his "greatest moral failure."
Following high school, Obama moved to Los Angeles in 1979 to attend Occidental College. In February 1981, he made his first public speech, calling for Occidental's divestment from South Africa. In mid-1981, Obama traveled to Indonesia to visit his mother and sister Maya, and visited the families of college friends in India and Pakistan for three weeks.
Later in 1981 he transferred to Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialty in international relations and graduated with a B.A. in 1983. He worked for a year at the Business International Corporation, then at the New York Public Interest Research Group.
Chicago community organizer and Harvard Law School
After four years in New York City, Obama was hired in Chicago as director of the Developing Communities Project (DCP), a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Greater Roseland (Roseland, West Pullman and Riverdale) on Chicago's far South Side. He worked there as a community organizer from June 1985 to May 1988. During his three years as the DCP's director, its staff grew from one to thirteen and its annual budget grew from US$70,000 ($141,564 in 2010) to US$400,000 ($735,648 in 2010). He helped set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens. Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute. In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time in Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives for the first time. He returned in August 2006 in a visit to his father's birthplace, a village near Kisumu in rural western Kenya.
In late 1988, Obama entered Harvard Law School. He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review at the end of his first year, and president of the journal in his second year. During his summers, he returned to Chicago, where he worked as a summer associate at the law firms of Sidley Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990. After graduating with a Juris Doctor (J.D.) magna cum laude from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago. Obama's election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations, which evolved into a personal memoir. The manuscript was published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.
University of Chicago Law School and civil rights attorney
In 1991, Obama accepted a two-year position as Visiting Law and Government Fellow at the University of Chicago Law School to work on his first book. He then served as a professor at the University of Chicago Law School for twelve years—as a Lecturer from 1992 to 1996, and as a Senior Lecturer from 1996 to 2004—teaching constitutional law.
From April to October 1992, Obama directed Illinois's Project Vote, a voter registration drive with ten staffers and seven hundred volunteer registrars; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, and led to Crain's Chicago Business naming Obama to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be. In 1993 he joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a 13-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004, with his law license becoming inactive in 2002.
From 1994 to 2002, Obama served on the boards of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago, which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project, and of the Joyce Foundation. He served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.
Legislative career: 1997–2008
State Senator: 1997–2004
Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, succeeding State Senator Alice Palmer as Senator from Illinois's 13th District, which at that time spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde Park – Kenwood south to South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn. Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation reforming ethics and health care laws. He sponsored a law increasing tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare. In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.
Obama was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the general election, and was reelected again in 2002. In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary run for the U.S. House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one.
In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority. He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained, and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations. During his 2004 general election campaign for U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms. Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.
U.S. Senate campaign
In May 2002, Obama commissioned a poll to assess his prospects in a 2004 U.S. Senate race; he created a campaign committee, began raising funds and lined up political media consultant David Axelrod by August 2002, and formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.
Obama was an early opponent of the George W. Bush administration's 2003 invasion of Iraq. On October 2, 2002, the day President Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War, Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally, and spoke out against the war. He addressed another anti-war rally in March 2003 and told the crowd that "it's not too late" to stop the war.
Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun not to contest the race resulted in wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates. In the March 2004 primary election, Obama won in an unexpected landslide—which overnight made him a rising star within the national Democratic Party, started speculation about a presidential future, and led to the reissue of his memoir, Dreams from My Father.
In July 2004, Obama delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts, and it was seen by 9.1 million viewers. His speech was well received and elevated his status within the Democratic Party.
Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004. Six weeks later, Alan Keyes accepted the Illinois Republican Party's nomination to replace Ryan. In the November 2004 general election, Obama won with 70% of the vote.
U.S. Senator: 2005–2008
Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 4, 2005, at which time he became the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus. CQ Weekly characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes in 2005–2007. The National Journal ranked him among the "most liberal" senators during 2005 through 2007 (the ranking has been criticized by liberal groups such as Media Matters for America). He enjoyed high popularity as senator with a 72% approval in Illinois. Obama announced on November 13, 2008 that he would resign his Senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.
Obama cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act. He introduced two initiatives bearing his name: Lugar–Obama, which expanded the Nunn–Lugar cooperative threat reduction concept to conventional weapons, and the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act, which authorized the establishment of USAspending.gov, a web search engine on federal spending. On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama, along with Senators Thomas R. Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCain, introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.
Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee. Regarding tort reform, Obama voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008, which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless wiretapping operations.
In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor. In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007. Obama also introduced Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act, a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007, neither of which has been signed into law.
Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act adding safeguards for personality disorder military discharges. This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008. He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which has not passed committee, and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism. Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.
Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works and Veterans' Affairs through December 2006. In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on European Affairs. As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before Abbas became President of the Palestinian Authority, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi condemning corruption within the Kenyan government.
Presidential campaign: 2008
On February 10, 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for president of the United States in front of the Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois. The choice of the announcement site was viewed as symbolic because it was also where Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic "House Divided" speech in 1858. Throughout the campaign, Obama emphasized the issues of rapidly ending the Iraq War, increasing energy independence and providing universal health care.
A large number of candidates entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries. The field narrowed to a duel between Obama and Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton after early contests, with the race remaining close throughout the primary process but with Obama gaining a steady lead in pledged delegates due to better long-range planning, superior fundraising, dominant organizing in caucus states, and better exploitation of delegate allocation rules. On June 3, with all states counted, Obama was named the presumptive nominee and delivered a victory speech in St. Paul, Minnesota. Clinton ended her campaign and endorsed him on June 7, 2008.
Obama proceeded to focus on the general election campaign against Senator John McCain, the presumptive Republican nominee, in the lead up to the Democratic National Convention. He announced on August 23, 2008, that he had selected Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate. At the convention, held August 25 to August 28 in Denver, Colorado, Hillary Clinton called for her delegates and supporters to endorse Obama, and she and Bill Clinton gave convention speeches in support of Obama. Obama delivered his acceptance speech to a crowd of over 75,000 at Invesco Field at Mile High and presented his policy goals; the speech was viewed by over 38 million people worldwide.
During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations. On June 19, 2008, Obama became the first major-party presidential candidate to turn down public financing in the general election since the system was created in 1976.
After McCain was nominated as the Republican candidate, three presidential debates were held between the contenders spanning September and October 2008. On November 4, Obama won the presidency by winning 365 electoral votes to 173 that McCain received, in the process capturing 52.9% of the popular vote to McCain's 45.7%, to become the first African American to be elected president. Obama delivered his victory speech before hundreds of thousands of supporters in Chicago's Grant Park.
|Wikinews has related news: Barack Obama elected 44th President of the United States|
The inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President, and Joe Biden as Vice President, took place on January 20, 2009. In his first few days in office Obama issued executive orders and presidential memoranda directing the U.S. military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq, and ordered the closing of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp "as soon as practicable and no later than" January 2010. Obama also reduced the secrecy given to presidential records and changed procedures to promote disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act. The president also reversed George W. Bush's ban on federal funding to foreign establishments that allow abortions.
The first bill signed into law by Obama was the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, relaxing the statute of limitations for equal-pay lawsuits. Five days later, he signed the reauthorization of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) to cover an additional 4 million children currently uninsured.
In March 2009, Obama reversed a Bush-era policy which had limited funding of embryonic stem cell research. Obama stated that he believed "sound science and moral values...are not inconsistent" and pledged to develop "strict guidelines" on the research.
Obama has appointed two justices to the Supreme Court. Sonia Sotomayor, nominated by Obama on May 26, 2009, to replace retiring Associate Justice David Souter, was confirmed on August 6, 2009, becoming the first Hispanic to be a Supreme Court Justice. Elena Kagan, nominated by Obama on May 10, 2010, to replace retiring Associate Justice John Paul Stevens, was confirmed on August 5, 2010.
On September 30, 2009, the Obama administration proposed new regulations on power plants, factories and oil refineries in an attempt to limit greenhouse gas emissions and to curb global warming.
Obama signed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, a measure that expands the 1969 United States federal hate-crime law to include crimes motivated by a victim's actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability, on October 8, 2009.
On March 30, 2010, Obama signed the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, a reconciliation bill which ends the process of the federal government giving subsidies to private banks to give out federally insured loans, increases the Pell Grant scholarship award, and makes changes to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
Obama changed direction at U.S. space agency NASA. He ended plans for a return of manned spaceflight to the moon and ended development of the Ares I rocket, Ares V rocket and Constellation program. He is focusing funding (which is expected to rise modestly) on Earth science projects and a new rocket type, as well as research and development for an eventual manned mission to Mars. Missions to the International Space Station are expected to continue until 2020.
On February 17, 2009, Obama signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, a $787 billion economic stimulus package aimed at helping the economy recover from the deepening worldwide recession. The act includes increased federal spending for health care, infrastructure, education, various tax breaks and incentives, and direct assistance to individuals, which is being distributed over the course of several years.
In March, Obama's Treasury Secretary, Timothy Geithner, took further steps to manage the financial crisis, including introducing the Public-Private Investment Program for Legacy Assets, which contains provisions for buying up to $2 trillion in depreciated real estate assets.
Obama intervened in the troubled automotive industry in March 2009, renewing loans for General Motors and Chrysler to continue operations while reorganizing. Over the following months the White House set terms for both firms' bankruptcies, including the sale of Chrysler to Italian automaker Fiat and a reorganization of GM giving the U.S. government a temporary 60% equity stake in the company, with the Canadian government shouldering a 12% stake. In June 2009, dissatisfied with the pace of economic stimulus, Obama called on his cabinet to accelerate the investment. He signed into law the successful Car Allowance Rebate System, known colloquially as "Cash for Clunkers", running from July to August 2009, which not only reduced inventories but set off increased production runs at GM, Ford and Toyota, resulting in the rehiring of laid-off workers.
Although total spending and loan guarantees from the Federal Reserve and the Treasury Department authorized by the Bush and Obama administrations was about $11.5 trillion, only $3 trillion had actually been spent by the end of November 2009. However, Obama and the Congressional Budget Office predict that the 2010 budget deficit will be $1.5 trillion or 10.6% of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP) compared to the 2009 deficit of $1.4 trillion or 9.9% of GDP. In 2011, the administration also predicted the 2011 deficit will slightly shrink to $1.34 while the 10-year deficit will increase to $8.53 trillion or 80% of GDP.
Unemployment numbers rose briefly to as high as 10.1% in October 2009 (the highest since 1983) before decreasing to 9.5% in June 2010. In the first quarter of 2010, the U.S. economy expanded at a 2.7% pace after growing at its fastest rate in six years in the fourth quarter, 5.7%. In July 2010, the Federal Reserve expressed that although economic activity continued to increase, its pace had slowed and its Chairman, Ben Bernanke stated that the economic outlook was "unusually uncertain."
The Congressional Budget Office and a broad range of economists credit Obama's stimulus plan for economic growth. The CBO released a report stating that the stimulus bill increased employment by 1–2.1 million, while conceding that "It is impossible to determine how many of the reported jobs would have existed in the absence of the stimulus package." Although an April 2010 survey of members of the National Association for Business Economics showed an increase in job creation (over a similar January survey) for the first time in two years, 73% of the 68 respondents believed that the stimulus bill has had no impact on employment.
Health care reform
Obama called for Congress to pass legislation reforming health care in the United States, a key campaign promise and a top legislative goal. He proposed an expansion of health insurance coverage to cover the uninsured, to cap premium increases, and to allow people to retain their coverage when they leave or change jobs. His proposal was to spend $900 billion over 10 years and include a government insurance plan, also known as the public option, to compete with the corporate insurance sector as a main component to lowering costs and improving quality of health care. It would also make it illegal for insurers to drop sick people or deny them coverage for pre-existing conditions, and require every American carry health coverage. The plan also includes medical spending cuts and taxes on insurance companies that offer expensive plans.
On July 14, 2009, House Democratic leaders introduced a 1,017-page plan for overhauling the U.S. health care system, which Obama wanted Congress to approve by the end of 2009. After much public debate during the Congressional summer recess of 2009, Obama delivered a speech to a joint session of Congress on September 9 where he addressed concerns over his administration's proposals.
On November 7, 2009, a health care bill featuring the public option was passed in the House. On December 24, 2009, the Senate passed its own bill—without a public option—on a party-line vote of 60–39. On March 21, 2010, the health care bill passed by the Senate in December was passed in the House by a vote of 219 to 212. Obama signed the bill into law on March 23, 2010.
Gulf of Mexico oil spill
On April 20, 2010, an explosion destroyed an offshore drilling rig at the Macondo Prospect in the Gulf of Mexico, causing a major sustained oil leak. The well's operator, BP, initiated a containment and cleanup plan, and began drilling two relief wells intended to stop the flow. Obama visited the Gulf on May 2 among visits by members of his cabinet, and again on May 28 and June 4. He began a federal investigation and formed a bipartisan commission to recommend new safety standards, after a review by Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar and concurrent Congressional hearings. On May 27, he announced a 6-month moratorium on new deepwater drilling permits and leases, pending regulatory review. As multiple efforts by BP failed, some in the media and public expressed confusion and criticism over various aspects of the incident, and stated a desire for more involvement by Obama and the federal government.
In February and March, Vice President Joe Biden and Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton made separate overseas trips to announce a "new era" in U.S. foreign relations with Russia and Europe, using the terms "break" and "reset" to signal major changes from the policies of the preceding administration. Obama's granting of his first television interview as president to an Arabic cable network, Al Arabiya, was seen as an attempt to reach out to Arab leaders.
On March 19, Obama continued his outreach to the Muslim world, releasing a New Year's video message to the people and government of Iran. This attempt at outreach was rebuffed by the Iranian leadership. In April, Obama gave a speech in Ankara, Turkey, which was well received by many Arab governments. On June 4, 2009, Obama delivered a speech at Cairo University in Egypt calling for "a new beginning" in relations between the Islamic world and the United States and promoting Middle East peace.
On June 26, 2009, in response to the Iranian government's actions towards protesters following Iran's 2009 presidential election, Obama said: "The violence perpetrated against them is outrageous. We see it and we condemn it." On July 7, while in Moscow, he responded to a Vice President Biden comment on a possible Israeli military strike on Iran by saying: "We have said directly to the Israelis that it is important to try and resolve this in an international setting in a way that does not create major conflict in the Middle East."
In March 2010, Obama took a public stance against plans by the government of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to continue building Jewish housing projects in predominantly Arab neighborhoods of East Jerusalem. During the same month, an agreement was reached with the administration of Russian President Dmitri Medvedev to replace the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty with a new pact reducing the number of long-range nuclear weapons in the arsenals of both countries by about one-third.
On February 27, 2009, Obama declared that combat operations would end in Iraq within 18 months. His remarks were made to a group of Marines preparing for deployment to Afghanistan. Obama said, "Let me say this as plainly as I can: By August 31, 2010, our combat mission in Iraq will end." The Obama administration scheduled the withdrawal of combat troops to be completed by August 2010, decreasing troops levels from 142,000 while leaving a transitional force of 35,000 to 50,000 in Iraq until the end of 2011. On August 19, 2010 the last US combat brigade exited Iraq. The plan is to transition the mission of the remaining troops from combat operations to counter-terrorism and the training, equipping, and advising of Iraqi security forces. On August 31, 2010, Obama announced that the U.S. combat mission in Iraq was over.
War in Afghanistan
Early in his presidency, Obama moved to bolster U.S. troop strength in Afghanistan. He announced an increase to U.S. troop levels of 17,000 in February 2009 to "stabilize a deteriorating situation in Afghanistan", an area he said had not received the "strategic attention, direction and resources it urgently requires". He replaced the military commander in Afghanistan, General David D. McKiernan, with former Special Forces commander Lt. Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal in May 2009, indicating that McChrystal's Special Forces experience would facilitate the use of counterinsurgency tactics in the war. On December 1, 2009, Obama announced the deployment of an additional 30,000 military personnel to Afghanistan. He also proposed to begin troop withdrawals 18 months from that date. McChrystal was replaced by David Petraeus in June 2010 after McChrystal's staff criticized White House personnel in a magazine article.
Cultural and political image
Obama's family history, early life and upbringing, and Ivy League education differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil rights movement. Obama is also not a descendent of American slaves. Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough", Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black Journalists that "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong." Obama acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech, saying: "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."
Obama is frequently referred to as an exceptional orator. During his pre-inauguration transition period and continuing into his presidency, Obama has delivered a series of weekly Internet video addresses.
Obama's international appeal has been described as a defining factor for his public image. Polls show strong support for Obama in other countries, and he has met with prominent foreign figures including then-British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Italy's Democratic Party leader and then Mayor of Rome Walter Veltroni, and French President Nicolas Sarkozy.
According to a May 2009 poll conducted by Harris Interactive for France 24 and the International Herald Tribune, Obama was rated as the most popular world leader, as well as the one figure most people would pin their hopes on for pulling the world out of the economic downturn.
Obama won Best Spoken Word Album Grammy Awards for abridged audiobook versions of Dreams from My Father in February 2006 and for The Audacity of Hope in February 2008. His concession speech after the New Hampshire primary was set to music by independent artists as the music video "Yes We Can", which was viewed by 10 million people on YouTube in its first month and received a Daytime Emmy Award. In December 2008, Time magazine named Barack Obama as its Person of the Year for his historic candidacy and election, which it described as "the steady march of seemingly impossible accomplishments".
On October 9, 2009, the Norwegian Nobel Committee announced that Obama had won the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples". Obama accepted this award in Oslo, Norway on December 10, 2009, with "deep gratitude and great humility." The award drew a mixture of praise and criticism from world leaders and media figures. Obama is the fourth U.S. president to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and the third to become a Nobel laureate while in office.
A 2010 Siena College poll of 238 Presidential scholars found that Obama was ranked 15th out of 43, with high ratings for imagination, communication ability and intelligence and a low rating for background (family, education and experience).
During his Senate service, Obama had a lifetime average conservative rating of 7.67% from the American Conservative Union and a lifetime average liberal rating of 90% from the Americans for Democratic Action.
In April 2005, Obama defended the New Deal social welfare policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt and opposed Republican proposals to establish private accounts for Social Security. In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Obama spoke out against government indifference to growing economic class divisions, calling on both political parties to take action to restore the social safety net for the poor. Obama said in 2007 that he supported universal health care in the United States. He has proposed rewarding teachers for performance from traditional merit pay systems, assuring unions that changes would be pursued through the collective bargaining process.
Obama has supported eliminating taxes for senior citizens with incomes of under $50,000, and raising taxes on income over $250,000, on capital gains, and on dividends. He has also supported simplifying tax filings and removing loopholes.
As an environmental initiative, Obama proposed a cap and trade auction system with no grandfathering to restrict carbon emissions and a ten year program of investments in new energy sources to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil.
In a March 2007 speech, Obama said that the primary way to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons is through talks and diplomacy, without preconditions, but not ruling out military action. In August 2007, Obama remarked that "it was a terrible mistake to fail to act" against a 2005 meeting of al-Qaeda leaders that U.S. intelligence had confirmed to be taking place in Pakistan.
Obama stated in 2007 that he would enact budget cuts in the range of tens of billions of dollars, stop investing in "unproven" missile defense systems, not weaponize space, "slow development of Future Combat Systems", and work towards eliminating all nuclear weapons. Obama favors ending development of new nuclear weapons, reducing the current U.S. nuclear stockpile, enacting a global ban on production of fissile material, and seeking negotiations with Russia to reduce the pressure on both sides for intercontinental ballistic missiles to be on high-alert status.
Obama has called for more assertive action to oppose genocide in the Darfur region of Sudan. He has divested $180,000 in personal holdings of Sudan-related stock, and has urged divestment from companies doing business in Iran.
Family and personal life
In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family: "It's like a little mini-United Nations", he said. "I've got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher." Obama has seven half-siblings from his Kenyan father's family, six of them living, and a half-sister with whom he was raised, Maya Soetoro-Ng, the daughter of his mother and her Indonesian second husband. Obama's mother was survived by her Kansas-born mother, Madelyn Dunham until her death on November 2, 2008, two days before his election to the Presidency. In Dreams from My Father, Obama ties his mother's family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. Obama's great-uncle served in the 89th Division that overran Ohrdruf, the first of the Nazi concentration camps to be liberated by U.S. troops during World War II.
Obama was known as "Barry" in his youth, but asked to be addressed with his given name during his college years. Besides his native English, Obama speaks Indonesian at the conversational level, which he learned during his four childhood years in Jakarta. He plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team.
Obama is a well known supporter of the Chicago White Sox, and threw out the first pitch at the 2005 ALCS when he was still a Senator. In 2009, he threw out the ceremonial first pitch at the all star game while wearing a White Sox jacket. He is also primarily a Chicago Bears fan in the NFL, but is known to also support the Pittsburgh Steelers, and openly rooted for them in their victory in Super Bowl XLIII 12 days after Obama took office as President.
In June 1989, Obama met Michelle Robinson when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin. Assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, Robinson joined him at group social functions, but declined his initial requests to date. They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992. The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born on July 4, 1998, followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), on June 10, 2001. The Obama daughters attended the private University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. When they moved to Washington, D.C., in January 2009, the girls started at the private Sidwell Friends School. The Obamas have a Portuguese Water Dog named Bo.
Applying the proceeds of a book deal, the family moved in 2005 from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to a $1.6 million house in neighboring Kenwood, Chicago. The purchase of an adjacent lot and sale of part of it to Obama by the wife of developer, campaign donor and friend Tony Rezko attracted media attention because of Rezko's subsequent indictment and conviction on political corruption charges that were unrelated to Obama.
In December 2007, Money magazine estimated the Obama family's net worth at $1.3 million. Their 2007 tax return showed a household income of $4.2 million—up from about $1 million in 2006 and $1.6 million in 2005—mostly from sales of his books.
Obama tried to quit smoking several times over the years and has used nicotine replacement therapy. However in June 2010, during a congratulatory phone call to president-elect Benigno Aquino of the Philippines, Obama told Aquino that he had quit and would offer advice on how to stop smoking when Aquino was himself ready for that step.
I'm a Christian by choice. My family didn't—frankly, they weren't folks who went to church every week. And my mother was one of the most spiritual people I knew, but she didn't raise me in the church. So I came to my Christian faith later in life, and it was because the precepts of Jesus Christ spoke to me in terms of the kind of life that I would want to lead—being my brothers' and sisters' keeper, treating others as they would treat me. I think also understanding that Jesus Christ dying for my sins spoke to the humility we all have to have as human beings, that we're sinful and we're flawed and we make mistakes, and that we achieve salvation through the grace of God. But what we can do, as flawed as we are, is still see God in other people and do our best to help them find their own grace. That's what I strive to do. That's what I pray to do every day. I think my public service is part of that effort to express my Christian faith.
Obama is a Christian whose religious views developed in his adult life. In The Audacity of Hope, Obama wrote that he "was not raised in a religious household". He described his mother, raised by non-religious parents (whom Obama has specified elsewhere as "non-practicing Methodists and Baptists") to be detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known". He described his father as "raised a Muslim", but a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful". Obama explained how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change". He was baptized at the Trinity United Church of Christ in 1988 and was an active member there for two decades. Obama resigned from Trinity during the Presidential campaign after controversial statements made by Rev. Jeremiah Wright became public. After a prolonged effort to find a church to attend regularly in Washington, Obama announced in June 2009 that his primary place of worship would be the Evergreen Chapel at Camp David. In speaking on the importance of defending religious diversity and the right of secular citizens not to believe or practice, Obama emphasized that:
"As president of the United States I'm also somebody who deeply believes that part of the bedrock strength of this country is that it embraces people of many faiths and no faith. That this is a country that is still predominantly Christian, but we have Jews, Muslims, Hindus, atheists, agnostics, Buddhists, and that their own path to grace is one that we have to revere and respect as much as our own. That's part of what makes this country what it is."
- ^ "President Barack Obama". The White House. http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/president_obama/. Retrieved December 12, 2008.
- ^ "Certification of Live Birth for Barack Obama". Department of Health, Hawaii. August 8, 1961. http://static.politifact.com.s3.amazonaws.com/graphics/birthCertObama.jpg. Retrieved December 12, 2008.
- ^ "American President: Barack Obama". Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/obama. Retrieved January 23, 2009.
- United Church of Christ (January 20, 2009). "Barack Obama, long time UCC member, inaugurated forty-fourth U.S. President". Press release. http://www.ucc.org/news/obama-inauguration.html. Retrieved January 21, 2009. "Barack Obama, who spent more than 20 years as a UCC member, is the forty-fourth President of the United States."
- An Associated Press wire story on Obama's resignation from Trinity United Church of Christ in the course of the Jeremiah Wright controversy stated that he had, in doing so, disaffiliated himself with the UCC. (See"Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized". Associated Press. MSNBC. November 17, 2008. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/27775757/. Retrieved January 20, 2009. )
- Miller, Lisa and Wolffe, Richard, "Finding His Faith", Newsweek, July 12, 2008, Retrieved February 4, 2010
- Anne E. Kornblut Washington Post Staff Writer, "Obama's spirituality is largely private, but it's influential, advisers say" Washington Post, February 4, 2010, Retrieved February 4, 2010 Obama prays privately...when he takes his family to Camp David on the weekends, a Navy chaplain ministers to them.
- Amy Sullivan Time Magazine The Obamas Find a Church Home—Away from Home Obama...will follow in George W. Bush's footsteps and make his primary place of worship Evergreen Chapel, the nondenominational church at Camp David.
- "Obama Has Never Been A Muslim, And Is a Committed Christian", Organizing for America, November 12, 2007. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
- ^ Scott, Janny (September 9, 2007). "In 2000, a Streetwise Veteran Schooled a Bold Young Obama". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/09/us/politics/09obama.html. Retrieved August 31, 2010.
- ^ "Born in the U.S.A.". FactCheck. August 21, 2008. http://www.factcheck.org/elections-2008/born_in_the_usa.html. Retrieved October 24, 2008.
- ^ Maraniss, David (August 24, 2008). "Though Obama Had to Leave to Find Himself, It Is Hawaii That Made His Rise Possible". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/08/23/AR2008082301620.html. Retrieved October 27, 2008.
- ^ For Stanley Ann's first name, see Obama (1995, 2004), p. 19
- ^ "Born in the U.S.A.". FactCheck. August 21, 2008. http://www.factcheck.org/elections-2008/born_in_the_usa.html. Retrieved October 24, 2008.
- Hutton, Brian (May 3, 2007). "For sure, Obama's South Side Irish". The Chicago Sun-Times. http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/368961,CST-NWS-ireland03.article. Retrieved November 23, 2008.
- Jordan, Mary (May 13, 2007). "Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own - washingtonpost.com". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/12/AR2007051201551.html. Retrieved November 8, 2008.
- ^ "Researchers: Obama has German roots". USA Today. 6/4/2009. http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2009-06-04-obama-roots_N.htm. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
- ^ "Barack Obama on Saint Patrick's Day: I'm a little bit Irish". huffingtonpost.com. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/03/17/obama-on-st-patricks-day_n_175901.html. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
- ^ Rudin, Ken (December 23, 2009). "NPR's Political Junkie, December 23, 2009, accessed December 30, 2009". Npr.org. http://www.npr.org/blogs/politicaljunkie/2009/12/todays_junkie_segment_on_totn_5.html. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ^ Heard on Tell Me More (October 29, 2008). "Asian Writer Ponders First Asian President Too". Npr.org. http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=96126355. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 9–10. For book excerpts, see"Barack Obama: Creation of Tales". East African. November 1, 2004. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927225314/http://www.nationmedia.com/EastAfrican/01112004/Features/PA2-2212.html. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
- ^ a b Jones, Tim (March 27, 2007). "Barack Obama: Mother not just a girl from Kansas. Stanley Ann Dunham shaped a future senator". Chicago Tribune: p. 1 (Tempo). http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/politics/obama/chi-0703270151mar27-archive,0,5853572,full.story. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
- ^ Ripley, Amanda (April 9, 2008). "The Story of Barack Obama's Mother". Time. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1729524,00.html. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
- ^ Merida, Kevin (December 14, 2007). "The Ghost of a Father". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/story/2007/12/13/ST2007121301893.html. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
- Ochieng, Philip (November 1, 2004). "From Home Squared to the US Senate: How Barack Obama Was Lost and Found". East African. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927223905/http://www.nationmedia.com/EastAfrican/01112004/Features/PA2-11.html. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
- ^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 44–45.
- ^ "Statue of a Young Obama To Watch Over Indonesian Capital". The Jakarta Globe. December 9, 2009. http://thejakartaglobe.com/home/statue-of-us-president-barack-obama-to-be-unveiled-in-jakarta-park/346178. Retrieved February 19, 2010.
- ^ "From Chinaview.cn". News.xinhuanet.com. December 10, 2009. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-12/10/content_12624443.htm. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ^ Pickler, Nedra (January 24, 2007). "Obama Debunks Claim About Islamic School". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/24/AR2007012400371_pf.html. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ^ Serafin, Peter (March 21, 2004). "Punahou Grad Stirs Up Illinois Politics". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. http://archives.starbulletin.com/2004/03/21/news/story4.html. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
- Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 3 and 4.
- ^ Ripley, Amanda (April 9, 2008). "The Story of Barack Obama's Mother". Time. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1729524,00.html. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
- Suryakusuma, Julia (November 29, 2006). "Obama for President... of Indonesia". Jakarta Post. http://old.thejakartapost.com/yesterdaydetail.asp?fileid=20061129.F03. Retrieved June 24, 2008. [dead link]
- ^ Obama (1995), pp. 9–10.
- ^ Obama (1995), Chapters 4 and 5.
- Serrano, Richard A (March 11, 2007). "Obama's Peers Didn't See His Angst" (paid archive). Los Angeles Times. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/1230439131.html?dids=1230439131:1230439131&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Mar+11%2C+2007&author=Richard+A.+Serrano&pub=Los+Angeles+Times&edition=&startpage=A.20&desc=THE+NATION. Retrieved January 4, 2008.
- ^ Reyes, B. J (February 8, 2007). "Punahou Left Lasting Impression on Obama". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. http://archives.starbulletin.com/2007/02/08/news/story02.html. Retrieved January 4, 2008. "As a teenager, Obama went to parties and sometimes sought out gatherings on military bases or at the University of Hawaii that were mostly attended by blacks."
- ^ "Obama Gets Blunt with N.H. Students". Boston Globe. Associated Press. November 21, 2007. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2007/11/21/obama_gets_blunt_with_nh_students/. Retrieved January 4, 2008.
- In Dreams from My Father, Obama writes: "Pot had helped, and booze; maybe a little blow when you could afford it." Obama (1995), pp. 93–94.
- For analysis of the political impact of the quote and Obama's more recent admission that he smoked marijuana as a teenager ("When I was a kid, I inhaled"), see:Romano, Lois (January 3, 2007). "Effect of Obama's Candor Remains to Be Seen". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/02/AR2007010201359.html. Retrieved January 4, 2008.
- Seelye, Katharine Q (October 24, 2006). "Obama Offers More Variations From the Norm". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/24/us/politics/24obama.html. Retrieved January 4, 2008.
- ^ Hornick, Ed (August 17, 2008). "Obama, McCain talk issues at pastor's forum". LAKE FOREST, California: CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/08/16/warren.forum/. Retrieved January 4, 2009.
- ^ a b c Gordon, Larry (January 29, 2007). "Occidental recalls 'Barry' Obama". Los Angeles Times: p. B1. http://articles.latimes.com/2007/jan/29/local/me-oxy29. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
- Possley, Maurice (March 30, 2007). "Activism blossomed in college". Chicago Tribune: p. 20. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-0703291042mar30-archive,0,1533921.story. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
- Kovaleski, Serge F. (February 9, 2008). "Old friends say drugs played bit part in Obama's young life". The New York Times: p. A1. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/09/us/politics/09obama.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
- Rohter, Larry (April 10, 2008). "Obama says real-life experience trumps rivals' foreign policy credits". The New York Times: p. A18. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/10/us/politics/10obama.html. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
- Goldman, Adam; Tanner, Robert (Associated Press) (May 15, 2008). "Old friends recall Obama's years in LA, NYC". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/2008-05-15-3144401415_x.htm. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
- Helman, Scott (August 25, 2008). "Small college awakened future senator to service". The Boston Globe: p. 1A. http://www.boston.com/news/politics/2008/articles/2008/08/25/small_college_awakened_future_senator_to_service/?page=full. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
- Jackson, Brooks (June 5, 2009). "More 'birther' nonsense: Obama's 1981 Pakistan trip". FactCheck.org. http://www.factcheck.org/2009/06/more-birther-nonsense-obamas-1981-pakistan-trip. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
- Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 92–112.
- Mendell (2007), pp. 55–62.
- Remnick, David (2010). The Bridge: The Life and Rise of Barack Obama. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 98–112. ISBN 978-1-4000-4360-6.
- ^ Boss-Bicak, Shira (January 2005). "Barack Obama '83". Columbia College Today. http://www.college.columbia.edu/cct_archive/jan05/cover.php. Retrieved June 9, 2008.
- ^ "Curriculum Vitae". The University of Chicago Law School. Archived from the original on May 9, 2001. http://web.archive.org/web/20010509024017/http://www.law.uchicago.edu/faculty/obama/cv.html. Retrieved November 3, 2008.
- ^ Issenberg, Sasha (August 6, 2008). "Obama shows hints of his year in global finance: Tied markets to social aid". Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2008/08/06/obama_shows_hints_of_his_year_in_global_finance/?page=1. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
- ^ a b c d Chassie, Karen (ed.) (2007). Who's Who in America, 2008. New Providence, New Jersey: Marquis Who's Who. p. 3468. ISBN 9780837970110. http://www.marquiswhoswho.com/products/WAprodinfo.asp. Retrieved June 6, 2008.
- ^ Scott, Janny (October 30, 2007). "Obama's Account of New York Years Often Differs from What Others Say". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/30/us/politics/30obama.html. Retrieved April 13, 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 133–140; Mendell (2007), pp. 62–63.
- ^ Secter, Bob; McCormick, John (March 30, 2007). "Portrait of a pragmatist". Chicago Tribune: p. 1. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080209030448/http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-0703300121mar30,1,6651421,full.story. Retrieved June 6, 2008.
- Lizza, Ryan (March 19, 2007). "The Agitator: Barack Obama's Unlikely Political Education" (alternate link). New Republic. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080408234138/http://www.pickensdemocrats.org/info/TheAgitator_070319.htm. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
- Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 140–295
- Mendell (2007), pp. 63–83.
- ^ Matchan, Linda (February 15, 1990). "A Law Review breakthrough" (paid archive). The Boston Globe: p. 29. http://www.boston.com/news/politics/2008/articles/1990/02/15/a_law_review_breakthrough/. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- Corr, John (February 27, 1990). "From mean streets to hallowed halls" (paid archive). The Philadelphia Inquirer: p. C01. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=PI&p_theme=pi&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_trackval=PI&s_search_type=customized&s_dispstring=Author(John%20Corr)%20AND%20date(02/27/1990%20to%2002/27/1990)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=02/27/1990%20to%2002/27/1990)&p_field_advanced-0=Author&p_text_advanced-0=(John%20Corr)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=_rank_:D&xcal_ranksort=4&xcal_useweights=yes. Retrieved June 6, 2008.
- ^ Obama, Barack (August–September 1988). "Why organize? Problems and promise in the inner city". Illinois Issues 14 (8–9): 40–42.
reprinted in:Knoepfle, Peg (ed.) (1990). After Alinsky: community organizing in Illinois. Springfield, Illinois: Sangamon State University. pp. 35–40. ISBN 0962087335.
- Tayler, Letta; Herbert, Keith (March 2, 2008). "Obama forged path as Chicago community organizer". Newsday (New York): p. A06. http://www.newsday.com/news/nation/obama-forged-path-as-chicago-community-organizer-1.881130. Retrieved June 6, 2008.
- ^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 299–437.
- ^ Gnecchi, Nico (February 27, 2006). "Obama Receives Hero's Welcome at His Family's Ancestral Village in Kenya". Voice of America. Archived from the original on March 21, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080321161040/http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2006-08/2006-08-27-voa17.cfm. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
- ^ a b Levenson, Michael; Saltzman, Jonathan (January 28, 2007). "At Harvard Law, a unifying voice". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2007/01/28/at_harvard_law_a_unifying_voice/?page=full. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- Kantor, Jodi (January 28, 2007). "In law school, Obama found political voice". The New York Times: p. 1. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/28/us/politics/28obama.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- Kodama, Marie C (January 19, 2007). "Obama left mark on HLS". The Harvard Crimson. http://www.thecrimson.com/article.aspx?ref=516664. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- Mundy, Liza (August 12, 2007). "A series of fortunate events". The Washington Post: p. W10. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/08/08/AR2007080802038_pf.html. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- Heilemann, John (October 22, 2007). "When they were young". New York 40 (37): 32–7, 132–3. http://www.printthis.clickability.com/pt/cpt?action=cpt&title=When+They+Were+Young&expire=&urlID=24417790&fb=Y&url=http%3A%2F%2Fnymag.com%2Fnews%2Ffeatures%2F39321%2F&partnerID=73272. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- Mendell (2007), pp. 80–92.
- ^ a b Butterfield, Fox (February 6, 1990). "First black elected to head Harvard's Law Review". The New York Times: p. A20. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE2DC1631F935A35751C0A966958260. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- Ybarra, Michael J (February 7, 1990). "Activist in Chicago now heads Harvard Law Review" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune: p. 3. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/28797353.html?dids=28797353:28797353&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- Matchan, Linda (February 15, 1990). "A Law Review breakthrough" (paid archive). The Boston Globe: p. 29. http://www.boston.com/news/politics/2008/articles/1990/02/15/a_law_review_breakthrough/. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- Corr, John (February 27, 1990). "From mean streets to hallowed halls" (paid archive). The Philadelphia Inquirer: p. C01. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=PI&p_theme=pi&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_trackval=PI&s_search_type=customized&s_dispstring=Author(John%20Corr)%20AND%20date(02/27/1990%20to%2002/27/1990)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=02/27/1990%20to%2002/27/1990)&p_field_advanced-0=Author&p_text_advanced-0=(John%20Corr)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=_rank_:D&xcal_ranksort=4&xcal_useweights=yes. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- Drummond, Tammerlin (March 12, 1990). "Barack Obama's Law; Harvard Law Review's first black president plans a life of public service" (paid archive). Los Angeles Times: p. E1. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/60017156.html?dids=60017156:60017156&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- Evans, Gaynelle (March 15, 1990). "Opening another door: The saga of Harvard's Barack H. Obama". Black Issues in Higher Education: p. 5. http://www.diverseeducation.com/artman/publish/article_11791.shtml. Retrieved November 15, 2008.
- Pugh, Allison J. (Associated Press) (April 18, 1990). "Law Review's first black president aims to help poor" (paid archive). The Miami Herald: p. C01. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=MH&p_theme=realcities2&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_site=miami&s_trackval=MH&s_dispstring=Title(Law%20Review's%20first%20black%20president%20aims%20to%20help%20poor)%20AND%20date(04/18/1990%20to%2004/18/1990)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=04/18/1990%20to%2004/18/1990)&p_field_advanced-0=title&p_text_advanced-0=(Law%20Review's%20first%20black%20president%20aims%20to%20help%20poor)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=_rank_:D&xcal_ranksort=4&xcal_useweights=yes. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- ^ Aguilar, Louis (July 11, 1990). "Survey: Law firms slow to add minority partners" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune: p. 1 (Business). http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/28774085.html?dids=28774085:28774085&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved June 15, 2008. "Barack Obama, a summer associate at Hopkins & Sutter in Chicago"
- ^ Adams, Richard (May 9, 2007). "Barack Obama". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/may/09/barackobama.uselections20081. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
- Mendell, David. "Barack Obama (American politician)". http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/973560/Barack-Obama. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
- ^ a b Scott, Janny (May 18, 2008). "The story of Obama, written by Obama". The New York Times: p. 1. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/18/us/politics/18memoirs.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved June 15, 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. xiii–xvii.
- ^ Scott, Janny (May 18, 2008). "The story of Obama, written by Obama". The New York Times: p. A1. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/18/us/politics/18memoirs.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all. Retrieved January 30, 2010.
- Merriner, James L. (June 2008). "The friends of O". Chicago Magazine: p. 74. http://www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/June-2008/Obamas-Chicago-Posse/The-Friends-of-O/index.php?cp=2&si=1. Retrieved January 30, 2010.
- Zengerle, Jason (July 30, 2008). "Con law". The New Republic: p. 7. http://www.tnr.com/article/con-law?id=86dd0277-c6ee-4e3c-83e9-0bb468c5c40d&p=1. Retrieved January 30, 2010.
- Kantor, Jodi (July 30, 2008). "Teaching law, testing ideas, Obama stood slightly apart". The New York Times: p. A1. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/30/us/politics/30law.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved January 30, 2010.
- Gray, Steven (September 10, 2008). "Taking professor Obama's class". Time. http://www.time.com/time/politics/article/0,8599,1835238-2,00.html. Retrieved January 30, 2010.
- Starr, Alexandra (September 21, 2008). "Case study". The New York Times Magazine: p. 76. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/21/magazine/21obama-t.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all. Retrieved January 30, 2010.
- Hundley, Tom (March 22, 2009). "Ivory tower of power". Chicago Tribune Magazine: p. 6. http://www.chicagotribune.com/features/chi-mxa0322magazineobamapg6mar22,0,4802888,full.story. Retrieved January 30, 2010.
- ^ University of Chicago Law School (March 27, 2008). "Statement regarding Barack Obama". University of Chicago Law School. http://www.law.uchicago.edu/media/index.html. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
- Miller, Joe (March 28, 2008). "Was Barack Obama really a constitutional law professor?". FactCheck.org. http://www.factcheck.org/askfactcheck/was_barack_obama_really_a_constitutional_law.html. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
- Holan, Angie Drobnic (March 7, 2008). "Obama's 20 years of experience". PolitiFact.com. http://www.politifact.com/truth-o-meter/article/2008/mar/07/obamas-20-years-experience/. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
- ^ White, Jesse (ed.) (2000). Illinois Blue Book, 2000, Millennium ed.. Springfield, Illinois: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 83. OCLC 43923973. Archived from the original on February 14, 2004. http://web.archive.org/web/20040214180551/http://www.sos.state.il.us/bb/toc.html. Retrieved June 6, 2008. [dead link]
- Jarrett, Vernon (August 11, 1992). "'Project Vote' brings power to the people" (paid archive). Chicago Sun-Times: p. 23. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=CSTB&p_theme=cstb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_dispstring=(Vernon%20Jarrett)%20AND%20date(8/11/1992%20to%208/11/1992)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=8/11/1992%20to%208/11/1992)&p_field_advanced-0=&p_text_advanced-0=(Vernon%20Jarrett)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&xcal_useweights=no. Retrieved June 6, 2008.
- Reynolds, Gretchen (January 1993). "Vote of Confidence". Chicago 42 (1): 53–54. http://www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/January-1993/Vote-of-Confidence/. Retrieved June 6, 2008.
- Anderson, Veronica (September 27 – October 3 1993). "40 under Forty: Barack Obama, Director, Illinois Project Vote". Crain's Chicago Business 16 (39): 43.
- ^ Robinson, Mike (Associated Press) (February 20, 2007). "Obama got start in civil rights practice". The Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/education/higher/articles/2007/02/20/obama_got_start_in_civil_rights_practice. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- Morain, Dan, "Obama's law days effective but brief", Los Angeles Times, April 6, 2008, Retrieved February 14, 2010
- Ripley, Amanda, "Obama's Ascent", TIME, November 3, 2004, p. 3, Retrieved February 13, 2010
- Pallasch, Abdon M. (December 17, 2007). "As lawyer, Obama was strong, silent type; He was 'smart, innovative, relentless,' and he mostly let other lawyers do the talking". Chicago Sun-Times: p. 4. http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/obama/700499,CST-NWS-Obama-law17.article. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- . (June 27, 1993). "People" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune: p. 9 (Business). http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/24302659.html?dids=24302659:24302659&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- . (July 5, 1993). "Business appointments" (paid archive). Chicago-Sun-Times: p. 40. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=CSTB&p_theme=cstb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_dispstring=(Business%20appointments)%20AND%20date(7/5/1993%20to%207/5/1993)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=7/5/1993%20to%207/5/1993)&p_field_advanced-0=&p_text_advanced-0=(Business%20appointments)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&xcal_useweights=no. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- . (2008). "About us". Miner, Barnhill & Galland – Chicago, Illinois. http://www.lawmbg.com/index.cfm/PageID/2711. Retrieved June 15, 2008.
- Reardon, Patrick T. (June 25, 2008). "Obama's Chicago" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune: p. 1 (Tempo). http://www.chicagotribune.com/travel/chi-obama-chicago-htmlstory,0,506256.htmlstory. Retrieved February 13, 2010. "Step 9: Lawyering. The law offices of Miner Barnhill & Galland] Obama joined this tiny, liberal and politically powerful firm of about a dozen lawyers, specializing in civil rights cases and then known as Davis Miner Barnhill & Galland."
- Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 438–439.
- Mendell (2007), pp. 104–106.
- ^ Jackson, David; Ray Long (April 3, 2007). "Obama Knows His Way Around a Ballot". Chicago Tribune. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/politics/obama/chi-070403obama-ballot-archive,0,5693903.story. Retrieved January 14, 2008. White, Jesse (2001). "Legislative Districts of Cook County, 1991 Reapportionment". Illinois Blue Book 2001–2002. Springfield: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 65. http://web.archive.org/web/20080226221919/http://www.sos.state.il.us/publications/02bluebook/legislative_branch/legdistrictmaps.pdf. State Sen. District 13 = State Rep. Districts 25 & 26.
- ^ Slevin, Peter (February 9, 2007). "Obama Forged Political Mettle in Illinois Capitol". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/02/08/AR2007020802262.html. Retrieved April 20, 2008. Helman, Scott (September 23, 2007). "In Illinois, Obama dealt with Lobbyists". Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2007/09/23/in_illinois_obama_dealt_with_lobbyists/. Retrieved April 20, 2008. See also:"Obama Record May Be Gold Mine for Critics". CBS News. Associated Press. January 17, 2007. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/01/17/politics/main2369157.shtml. Retrieved April 20, 2008. "In-Depth Look at Obama's Political Career" (video). CLTV. February 9, 2007. http://video.chicagotribune.com/global/video/popup/pop_player.asp?clipid1=1226539. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
- ^ a b Scott, Janny (July 30, 2007). "In Illinois, Obama Proved Pragmatic and Shrewd". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/30/us/politics/30obama.html. Retrieved April 20, 2008. See also:Pearson, Rick; Ray Long (May 3, 2007). "Careful Steps, Looking Ahead". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on February 16, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080216014957/http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/politics/chi-0705030101may03,1,7439904.story. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
- ^ Allison, Melissa (December 15, 2000). "State takes on predatory lending; Rules would halt single-premium life insurance financing". Chicago Tribune: p. 1 (Business). http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/65214450.html?dids=65214450:65214450&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved June 1, 2008. Long, Ray; Allison, Melissa (April 18, 2001). "Illinois OKs predatory loan curbs; State aims to avert home foreclosures.". Chicago Tribune: p. 1. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/71459393.html?dids=71459393:71459393&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved June 1, 2008.
- ^ "13th District: Barack Obama" (archive). Illinois State Senate Democrats. August 24, 2000. Archived from the original on April 12, 2000. http://web.archive.org/web/20000824102110/http://www.senatedem.state.il.us/obama/index.html. Retrieved April 20, 2008. "13th District: Barack Obama" (archive). Illinois State Senate Democrats. October 9, 2004. Archived from the original on August 2, 2004. http://web.archive.org/web/20040802233730/http://www.senatedem.state.il.us/obama/index.html. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
- ^ "Federal Elections 2000: U.S. House Results – Illinois". Federal Election Commission. http://www.fec.gov/pubrec/fe2000/ilh.htm. Retrieved April 24, 2008.
- "Obama's Loss May Have Aided White House Bid". http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14502364.
- Scott, Janny (September 9, 2007). "A Streetwise Veteran Schooled Young Obama". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/09/us/politics/09obama.html. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
- McClelland, Edward (February 12, 2007). "How Obama Learned to Be a Natural". Salon. http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2007/02/12/obama_natural/. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
- Wolffe, Richard; Daren Briscoe (July 16, 2007). "Across the Divide". Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/id/33156. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
- Helman, Scott (October 12, 2007). "Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb". Boston Globe. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2007/10/12/early_defeat_launched_a_rapid_political_climb/. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
- Wills, Christopher (October 24, 2007). 24, 2007-3157940059_x.htm "Obama learned from failed Congress run". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/2007-10-24-3157940059_x.htm 24, 2007-3157940059_x.htm. Retrieved September 20, 2008. [dead link]
- ^ Calmes, Jackie (February 23, 2007). "Statehouse Yields Clues to Obama". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/public/article/SB117219748197216894-Sn6oV_4KLQHp_xz7CjYLuyjv3Jg_20070324.html. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
- ^ Tavella, Anne Marie (April 14, 2003). "Profiling, taping plans pass Senate". Daily Herald: p. 17. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=ADHB&p_theme=adhb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_text_search-0=Profiling,%20AND%20taping%20AND%20plans%20AND%20pass%20AND%20Senate&s_dispstring=Profiling,%20taping%20plans%20pass%20Senate%20AND%20date(4/4/2003%20to%204/4/2003)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=4/4/2003%20to%204/4/2003)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&xcal_useweights=no. Retrieved June 1, 2008. Haynes, V. Dion (June 29, 2003). "Fight racial profiling at local level, lawmaker says; U.S. guidelines get mixed review". Chicago Tribune: p. 8. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/352884461.html?dids=352884461:352884461&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved June 1, 2008. Pearson, Rick (July 17, 2003). "Taped confessions to be law; State will be 1st to pass legislation". Chicago Tribune: p. 1 (Metro). http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/370136121.html?dids=370136121:370136121&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved June 1, 2008.
- ^ Youngman, Sam; Aaron Blake (March 14, 2007). "Obama's Crime Votes Are Fodder for Rivals". The Hill. http://thehill.com/leading-the-news/obamas-crime-votes-are-fodder-for-rivals-2007-03-13.html. Retrieved April 20, 2008. See also:"US Presidential Candidate Obama Cites Work on State Death Penalty Reforms". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. November 12, 2007. http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/11/12/america/NA-POL-US-Obama-Death-Penalty.php. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
- ^ Coffee, Melanie (November 6, 2004). "Attorney Chosen to Fill Obama's State Senate Seat". Associated Press. HPKCC. http://www.hydepark.org/hpkccnews/raoul.htm#ap. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
- ^ Helman, Scott (October 12, 2007). "Early defeat launched a rapid political climb". The Boston Globe: p. 1A. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2007/10/12/early_defeat_launched_a_rapid_political_climb. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
- ^ Strausberg, Chinta (September 26, 2002). "Opposition to war mounts" (paid archive). Chicago Defender: p. 1. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-220062931.html. Retrieved February 3, 2008.
- ^ Office of the Press Secretary (October 2, 2002). "President, House leadership agree on Iraq resolution". The White House. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021002-7.html. Retrieved February 17, 2008.
- Tackett, Michael (October 3, 2002). "Bush, House OK Iraq deal; Congress marches with Bush" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune: p. 1. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/203569641.html?dids=203569641:203569641&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved February 3, 2008.
- ^ Glauber, Bill (October 3, 2003). "War protesters gentler, but passion still burns" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune: p. 1. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/203569621.html?dids=203569621:203569621&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved February 3, 2008.
- Strausberg, Chinta (October 3, 2002). "War with Iraq undermines U.N.". Chicago Defender: p. 1. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-220379051.html. Retrieved October 28, 2008. "Photo caption: Left Photo: Sen. Barack Obama along with Rev. Jesse Jackson spoke to nearly 3,000 anti-war protestors (below) during a rally at Federal Plaza Wednesday."
- Katz, Marilyn (October 2, 2007). "Five years since our first action". Chicagoans Against War & Injustice. http://www.noiraqwar-chicago.org/?p=127. Retrieved February 17, 2008.
- Bryant, Greg; Vaughn, Jane B. (October 3, 2002). "300 attend rally against Iraq war" (paid archive). Daily Herald (Arlington Heights): p. 8. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=ADHB&p_theme=adhb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_text_search-0=300%20AND%20attend%20AND%20rally%20AND%20against%20AND%20Iraq%20AND%20war&s_dispstring=300%20attend%20rally%20against%20Iraq%20war%20AND%20date(10/3/2002%20to%2010/3/2002)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=10/3/2002%20to%2010/3/2002)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&xcal_useweights=no. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
- Mendell (2007), pp. 172–177.
- ^ Obama, Barack (October 2, 2002). "Remarks of Illinois State Sen. Barack Obama against going to war with Iraq". BarackObama.com. http://www.barackobama.com/2002/10/02/remarks_of_illinois_state_sen.php. Retrieved February 3, 2008.
- McCormick, John (October 3, 2007). "Obama marks '02 war speech; Contender highlights his early opposition in effort to distinguish him from his rivals" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune: p. 7. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/1351610621.html?dids=1351610621:1351610621&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved October 28, 2008. "The top strategist for Sen. Barack Obama has just 14 seconds of video of what is one of the most pivotal moments of the presidential candidate's political career. The video, obtained from a Chicago TV station, is of Obama's 2002 speech in opposition to the impending Iraq invasion."
- Pallasch, Abdon M. (October 3, 2007). "Obama touts anti-war cred; Kicks off tour 5 years after speech critical of going to Iraq" (paid archive). Chicago Sun-Times: p. 26. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=CSTB&p_theme=cstb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_dispstring=headline(Obama%20touts%20anti-war%20cred)%20AND%20date(all)&p_field_advanced-0=title&p_text_advanced-0=(Obama%20touts%20anti-war%20cred)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&xcal_useweights=no. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
- ^ Ritter, Jim (March 17, 2003). "Anti-war rally here draws thousands" (paid archive). Chicago Sun-Times: p. 3. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=CSTB&p_theme=cstb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_dispstring=headline(Anti-war%20rally%20here%20draws%20thousands)%20AND%20date(all)&p_field_advanced-0=title&p_text_advanced-0=(Anti-war%20rally%20here%20draws%20thousands)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&xcal_useweights=no. Retrieved February 3, 2008.
- Office of the Press Secretary (March 16, 2003). "President Bush: Monday "moment of truth" for world on Iraq". The White House. http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/03/16/sprj.irq.main/index.html. Retrieved February 17, 2008.
- Associated Press (March 17, 2003). "'Moment of truth for the world'; Bush, three allies set today as final day for Iraq to disarm or face massive military attack" (paid archive). Chicago Sun-Times: p. 1. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=CSTB&p_theme=cstb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_dispstring=headline(Moment%20of%20truth%20for%20the%20world)%20AND%20date(all)&p_field_advanced-0=title&p_text_advanced-0=(Moment%20of%20truth%20for%20the%20world)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&xcal_useweights=no. Retrieved February 3, 2008.
- ^ Davey,Monica (March 7, 2004). "Closely watched Illinois Senate race attracts 7 candidates in millionaire range". The New York Times: p. 19. Archived from the original on 2006-05-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20060514152430/http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/07/politics/campaign/07ILLI.html. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
- ^ Mendell, David (March 17, 2004). "Obama routs Democratic foes; Ryan tops crowded GOP field; Hynes, Hull fall far short across state". Chicago Tribune: p. 1. http://www.chicagotribune.com/technology/chi-0403170332mar17,0,6048572.story. Retrieved March 1, 2009.
- Davey, Monica (March 18, 2004). "As quickly as overnight, a Democratic star is born". The New York Times: p. A20. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/18/us/as-quickly-as-overnight-a-democratic-star-is-born.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved March 1, 2009.
- Howlett, Debbie (March 19, 2004). "Dems see a rising star in Illinois Senate candidate". USA Today: p. A04. http://www.usatoday.com/news/politicselections/nation/2004-03-18-obama-usat_x.htm. Retrieved March 1, 2009.
- Scheiber, Noam (May 31, 2004). "Race against history. Barack Obama's miraculous campaign". The New Republic 230 (20): 21–22, 24–26 (cover story). http://www.tnr.com/article/race-against-history-0. Retrieved March 24, 2009.
- Finnegan, William (May 31, 2004). "The Candidate. How far can Barack Obama go?". The New Yorker 20 (14): 32–38. http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2004/05/31/040531fa_fact1?currentPage=all. Retrieved March 24, 2009.
- Dionne Jr., E. J. (June 25, 2004). "In Illinois, a star prepares". The Washington Post: p. A29. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A4062-2004Jun24.html. Retrieved March 24, 2009.
- Scott, Janny (May 18, 2008). "The story of Obama, written by Obama". The New York Times: p. A1. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/18/us/politics/18memoirs.html?_r=3&pagewanted=all. Retrieved January 9, 2010.
- Mendell (2007), pp. 235–259.
- ^ Bernstein, David (June 2007). "The Speech". Chicago Magazine. http://www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/June-2007/The-Speech. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
- ^ . (August 2, 2004). "Star Power. Showtime: Some are on the rise; others have long been fixtures in the firmament. A galaxy of bright Democratic lights". Newsweek: pp. 48–51. http://www.newsweek.com/id/54728/output/print. Retrieved November 15, 2008.
- Samuel, Terence (August 2, 2004). "A shining star named Obama. How a most unlikely politician became a darling of the Democrats". U.S. News & World Report: p. 25. http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/articles/040802/2obama.htm. Retrieved November 15, 2008.
- Lizza, Ryan (September 2004). "The Natural. Why is Barack Obama generating more excitement among Democrats than John Kerry?". The Atlantic Monthly: pp. 30, 33. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200409/lizza. Retrieved November 15, 2008.
- Davey, Monica (July 26, 2004). "A surprise Senate contender reaches his biggest stage yet". The New York Times: p. A1. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/07/26/politics/campaign/26obama.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved November 15, 2008. [dead link]
- Leibovich, Mark (July 27, 2004). "The other man of the hour". The Washington Post: p. C1. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A16606-2004Jul26.html. Retrieved November 15, 2008.
- Milligan, Susan (July 27, 2004). "In Obama, Democrats see their future". The Boston Globe: p. B8. http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2004/07/27/in_obama_democrats_see_their_future/. Retrieved November 15, 2008.
- Seelye, Katharine Q. (July 28, 2004). "Illinois Senate nominee speaks of encompassing unity". The New York Times: p. A1. Archived from the original on 2006-06-24. http://web.archive.org/web/20060624052131/http://www.nytimes.com/2004/07/28/politics/campaign/28blacks.html. Retrieved November 15, 2008.
- Broder, David S. (July 28, 2004). "Democrats focus on healing divisions; Addressing convention, newcomers set themes". The Washington Post: p. A1. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A17865-2004Jul27.html. Retrieved November 15, 2008.
- Bing, Jonathan; McClintock, Pamela (July 29, 2004). "Auds resist charms of Dem stars". Daily Variety: p. 1. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117908388.html?categoryid=1077&cs=1. Retrieved November 15, 2008.
- Mendell (2007), pp. 272–285.
- ^ . (June 25, 2004). "Ryan drops out of Senate race in Illinois". CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/06/25/il.ryan. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
- Mendell (2007), pp. 260–271.
- ^ Lannan, Maura Kelly (Associated Press) (August 9, 2004). "Alan Keyes enters U.S. Senate race in Illinois against rising Democratic star". Union-Tribune (San Diego). http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/politics/20040809-0849-illinoissenate.html. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
- ^ . (2005). "America Votes 2004: U.S. Senate / Illinois". CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2004/pages/results/states/IL/S/01/index.html. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
- Slevin, Peter (November 13, 2007). "For Obama, a handsome payoff in political gambles". The Washington Post: p. A3. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/11/12/AR2007111201945.html. Retrieved April 13, 2008.
- Chase, John; Mendell, David (November 3, 2004). "Obama scores a record landslide". Chicago Tribune: p. 1. http://www.noticiasdot.com/publicaciones/2004/1104/0311/noticias031104/presidenciales-usa/images/usa/chicago_tribune/chicago_tribune_031104.pdf. Retrieved April 3, 2009.
- Fornek, Scott (November 3, 2004). "Obama takes Senate seat in a landslide". Chicago Sun-Times: p. 6. http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/obama/1113153,cst-nws-obama110304.article. Retrieved April 3, 2009.
- ^ "About Barack Obama". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. http://obama.senate.gov/about/. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- ^ "Member Info". Congressional Black Caucus. Archived from the original on 2008-07-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20080709114659/http://www.house.gov/kilpatrick/cbc/member_info.html. Retrieved June 25, 2008.
- ^ Nather, David (January 14, 2008). "The Space Between Clinton and Obama". CQ Weekly. http://public.cq.com/docs/cqw/weeklyreport110-000002654703.html. Retrieved June 25, 2008. [dead link]
- ^ "Politico uncritically described NRCC ad's reference to National Journal's flawed ranking of Obama". Mediamatters.org. http://mediamatters.org/research/200804300005. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
- ^ "National Journal's meaningless rankings say Dennis Kucinich is 160th most-liberal Representative". Mediamatters.org. 2010-02-26. http://mediamatters.org/blog/201002260024. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
- ^ Melissa Lee. "Update; Obama leads Senate with 72% approval.". Star Tribune. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-133418139.html. Retrieved February 26, 2009.
- ^ Mason, Jeff (November 16, 2008). "Obama resigns Senate seat, thanks Illinois". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSTRE4AF1MJ20081116. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
- Sidoti, Liz (November 13, 2008). "Obama to Resign Senate Seat on Sunday". Time (Time Inc.). http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1859020,00.html. Retrieved November 22, 2008.
- ^ "President Bush Signs Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act.". White House. September 26, 2006. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2006/09/20060926.html.
- ^ U.S. Senate, 109th Congress, 1st Session (May 12, 2005). "S. 1033, Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act". Thomas. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:SN01033:. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- ^ "Lugar–Obama Nonproliferation Legislation Signed into Law by the President". Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office. January 11, 2007. http://obama.senate.gov/press/070111-lugar-obama_non/. Retrieved April 27, 2008. See also:Lugar, Richard G.; Barack Obama (December 3, 2005). "Junkyard Dogs of War". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/02/AR2005120201509.html. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- ^ McCormack, John (December 21, 2007). "Google Government Gone Viral". Weekly Standard. http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/014/502njiqx.asp. Retrieved April 27, 2008. See also:"President Bush Signs Coburn–Obama Transparency Act". Tom Coburn U.S. Senate Office. September 26, 2006. Archived from the original on 2008-05-01. http://web.archive.org/web/20080501233103/http://coburn.senate.gov/ffm/index.cfm?FuseAction=LegislativeFloorAction.Home&ContentRecord_id=eb582f19-802a-23ad-41db-7a7cb464cfdb. Retrieved April 27, 2008. and USAspending.gov
- ^ S. 3077: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008 Govtrack.us, 2007–2008 (110th Congress)
- ^ McIntire, Mike (February 3, 2008). "Nuclear Leaks and Response Tested Obama in Senate". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/03/us/politics/03exelon.html. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- ^ Daniel Fisher (August 11, 2008). "November Election A Lawyer's Delight". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/2008/08/08/obama-mccain-torts-biz-beltway-cz_df_0811torts.html. Retrieved January 11, 2009.
- ^ "Nunn–Lugar Report" (PDF). Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office. August 2005. Archived from the original on 2008-05-01. http://web.archive.org/web/20080501002134/http://lugar.senate.gov/nunnlugar/pdf/trip_report_2005.pdf. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
- ^ "Democratic Republic of the Congo". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. April 2006. http://www.usccb.org/sdwp/international/drc0406.shtml. Retrieved April 27, 2008. "The IRC Welcomes New U.S. Law on Congo". International Rescue Committee. January 5, 2007. http://www.theirc.org/news/the-irc-welcomes-new-us-law.html. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- ^ Weixel, Nathaniel (November 15, 2007). "Feingold, Obama Go After Corporate Jet Travel". The Hill. http://thehill.com/leading-the-news/feingold-obama-go-after-corporate-jet-travel-2007-11-15.html. Retrieved April 27, 2008. Weixel, Nathaniel (December 5, 2007). "Lawmakers Press FEC on Bundling Regulation". The Hill. http://thehill.com/leading-the-news/lawmakers-press-fec-on-bundling-regulation-2007-12-05.html. Retrieved April 27, 2008. See also:"Federal Election Commission Announces Plans to Issue New Regulations to Implement the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007". Federal Election Commission. September 24, 2007. http://www.fec.gov/press/press2007/20070924travel.shtml. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- ^ Stern, Seth (January 31, 2007). "Obama–Schumer Bill Proposal Would Criminalize Voter Intimidation". CQPolitics.com. http://www.nytimes.com/cq/2007/01/31/cq_2213.html. Retrieved April 27, 2008. U.S. Senate, 110th Congress, 1st Session (January 31, 2007). "S. 453, Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act of 2007". Thomas. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d110:SN00453:. Retrieved April 27, 2008. See also:"Honesty in Elections" (editorial). The New York Times. January 31, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/31/opinion/31wed1.html. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- ^ Krystin, E. Kasak (February 7, 2007). "Obama Introduces Measure to Bring Troops Home". Medill News Service. http://nwitimes.com/articles/2007/02/07/news/illiana/doc65cc98d8dc6506b28625727b0011edb5.txt. Retrieved April 27, 2008. "Latest Major Action: 1/30/2007 Referred to Senate committee".U.S. Senate, 110th Congress, 1st Session (January 30, 2007). "S. 433, Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007". Thomas. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d110:SN00433:. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- ^ "Obama, Bond Hail New Safeguards on Military Personality Disorder Discharges, Urge Further Action". Kit Bond U.S. Senate Office. October 1, 2007. http://bond.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=PressRoom.NewsReleases&ContentRecord_id=5C1EBFEB-1321-0E36-BA7D-04630AEFAD31. Retrieved April 27, 2008. See also:Dine, Philip (December 23, 2007). "Bond Calls for Review of Military Discharges". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/special/srlinks.nsf/story/2E7CC823AD55667B862573A7007D12A2?OpenDocument. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- ^ "Obama, Bond Applaud Senate Passage of Amendment to Expedite the Review of Personality Disorder Discharge Cases". http://obama.senate.gov/press/080314-obama_bond_appl/.
- ^ Graham-Silverman, Adam (September 12, 2007). "Despite Flurry of Action in House, Congress Unlikely to Act Against Iran". CQ Today. http://public.cq.com/docs/cqt/news110-000002583189.html. Retrieved April 27, 2008. [dead link]
- "Obama, Schiff Provision to Create Nuclear Threat Reduction Plan Approved". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. December 20, 2007. http://obama.senate.gov/press/071220-obama_schiff_pr/. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- ^ "Senate Passes Obama, McCaskill Legislation to Provide Safety Net for Families of Wounded Service Members". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. August 2, 2007. http://obama.senate.gov/press/070802-senate_passes_o_1/. Retrieved April 27, 2008. Archive copy at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ "Committee Assignments" (archive). Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. December 9, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061209190827/obama.senate.gov/committees/. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- ^ "Obama Gets New Committee Assignments". Associated Press. Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. November 15, 2006. http://obama.senate.gov/news/061115-obama_gets_new/. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- ^ Baldwin, Tom (December 21, 2007). "Stay-At-Home Barack Obama Comes Under Fire for a Lack of Foreign Experience". Sunday Times (UK) (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/article3080794.ece. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- ^ Larson, Christina (September 2006). "Hoosier Daddy: What Rising Democratic Star Barack Obama Can Learn from an Old Lion of the GOP". Washington Monthly. http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2006/0609.larson.html. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- Goudie, Chuck (January 12, 2006). "Obama Meets with Arafat's Successor". WLS-TV. http://abclocal.go.com/wls/story?section=news/local&id=3806933. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- "Obama Slates Kenya for Fraud". News24.com. August 28, 2006. Archived from the original on 2008-06-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20080605213213/http://www.news24.com/News24/Africa/News/0,,2-11-1447_1989646,00.html. Retrieved April 27, 2008.
- Wamalwa, Chris (September 2, 2006). "Envoy Hits at Obama Over Graft Remark". The Standard (Nairobi). Archived from the original on October 10, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071010050740/http://www.eastandard.net/archives/cl/hm_news/news.php?articleid=1143957666. Retrieved April 27, 2008. [dead link]
- Moracha, Vincent; Mangoa Mosota (September 4, 2006). "Leaders Support Obama on Graft Claims". The Standard (Nairobi). Archived from the original on October 7, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071007115436/http://www.eastandard.net/archives/cl/hm_news/news.php?articleid=1143957752. Retrieved April 27, 2008. [dead link]
- ^ a b Pearson, Rick; Long, Ray (February 10, 2007). "Obama: I'm running for president". Chicago Tribune. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/politics/chi-070210obama-pearson1-story,0,3768114.story. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- ^ "Obama Launches Presidential Bid". BBC News. February 10, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6349081.stm. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- ^ a b "Presidential Campaign Announcement" (video). BarackObamadotcom (YouTube.com). February 10, 2007. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gdJ7Ad15WCA&feature=channel_page. Retrieved January 29, 2009.
- ^ Parsons, Christi (February 10, 2007). "Obama's launch site: Symbolic Springfield: Announcement venue evokes Lincoln legacy". Chicago Tribune. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-159132539.html. Retrieved June 12, 2009.
- ^ "Barack Obama on the Issues: What Would Be Your Top Three Overall Priorities If Elected?". Washington Post. http://projects.washingtonpost.com/2008-presidential-candidates/issues/candidates/barack-obama/#top-priorities. Retrieved April 14, 2008. See also:
- ^ Tumulty, Karen (May 8, 2008). "The Five Mistakes Clinton Made". Time. http://www.time.com/time/politics/article/0,8599,1738331,00.html. Retrieved November 11, 2008.
- Baker, Peter and Rutenberg, Jim (June 8, 2008). "The Long Road to a Clinton Exit". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/08/us/politics/08recon.html. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- ^ "Obama: I will be the Democratic nominee". CNN. June 4, 2008. http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/06/03/election.democrats/index.html. Retrieved June 6, 2008.
- John Whitesides in Washington (June 4, 2008). "Obama clinches nomination". Herald Sun (Australia). http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,23809081-23109,00.html. Retrieved June 6, 2008. [dead link]
- ^ Nagourney, Adam and Jeff Zeleny (June 4, 2008). "Obama Clinches Nomination". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/05/us/politics/04cnd-campaign.html. Retrieved June 4, 2008.
- ^ Nagourney, Adam and Jeff Zeleny (August 23, 2008). "Obama picks Biden for veep". San Francisco Chronicle. New York Times. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2008/08/29/politics/p050941D34.DTL. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- ^ Tom Baldwin (August 27, 2008). "Hillary Clinton: 'Barack is my candidate'". TimesOnline (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/us_elections/article4616719.ece. Retrieved August 27, 2008.
- Nagourney, Adam (August 27, 2008). "Obama Wins Nomination as Biden and Bill Clinton Rally the Party". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/28/us/politics/28DEMSDAY.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved August 27, 2008.
- ^ Liasson, Mara and Michele Norris (July 7, 2008). "Obama to accept nomination at Mile High Stadium". http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=92301409. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
- ^ "Obama accepts Democrat nomination". BBC News. August 29, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7586375.stm. Retrieved August 29, 2008.
- Marks, Alexandra (August 29, 2008). "Soaring speech from Obama, plus some specifics". The Christian Science Monitor. http://features.csmonitor.com/politics/2008/08/29/soaring-speech-from-obama-plus-some-specifics/. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- ^ Malone, Jim (July 2, 2007). "Obama Fundraising Suggests Close Race for Party Nomination". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 2007-09-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20070914032004/http://voanews.com/english/archive/2007-07/2007-07-02-voa52.cfm. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- Cummings, Jeanne (September 26, 2007). "Small Donors Rewrite Fundraising Handbook". Politico. http://dyn.politico.com/printstory.cfm?uuid=3ECB3515-3048-5C12-004D622CB6F4E214. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- Cadei, Emily (February 21, 2008). "Obama Outshines Other Candidates in January Fundraising". CQ Politics. http://www.cqpolitics.com/wmspage.cfm?docID=news-000002674309. Retrieved February 24, 2008.
- ^ Salant, Jonathan D. (June 19, 2008). "Obama Won't Accept Public Money in Election Campaign". Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601070&sid=aNi.G0PhWnFw&refer=home. Retrieved June 19, 2008.
- ^ "Commission on Presidential Debates Announces Sites, Dates, Formats and Candidate Selection Criteria for 2008 General Election". Commission on Presidential Debates. November 19, 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-07-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20080706070658/http://www.debates.org/pages/news_111907.html. Retrieved July 6, 2008.
- ^ Johnson, Alex (November 4, 2008). "Barack Obama elected 44th president". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/27531033/. Retrieved February 20, 2009.
- "CNN Electoral Map Calculator—Election Center 2008". CNN. 2008. http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2008/results/president/. Retrieved December 14, 2008.
- ^ "General Election: McCain vs. Obama". Real Clear Politics. http://www.realclearpolitics.com/epolls/2008/president/us/general_election_mccain_vs_obama-225.html. Retrieved February 20, 2009.
- ^ "BBC NEWS | World | Americas | US Elections 2008 | Obama wins historic US election". BBC News. November 5, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/us_elections_2008/7709978.stm. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
- Nagourney, Adam (November 4, 2008). "Obama Elected President as Racial Barrier Falls". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/05/us/politics/05elect.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
- "Obama: 'This is your victory'". CNN. November 5, 2008. http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/11/04/election.president/index.html. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
- Wallsten, Peter (November 5, 2008). "White Americans play major role in electing the first black president". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2008/nov/05/nation/na-assess5.
- Avila, Oscar (April 4, 2010). "Obama's census-form choice: 'Black'". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-obama-census4-2010apr04,0,7517288.story. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
- ^ Johnson, Wesley (November 5, 2008). "Change has come, says President-elect Obama". The Independent (UK). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/change-has-come-says-presidentelect-obama-992930.html. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
- ^ "Obama asks Pentagon for responsible Iraq drawdown". China Daily. January 23, 2009. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2009-01/23/content_7423535.htm. Retrieved September 4, 2009.
- ^ Glaberson, William (January 21, 2009). "Obama Orders Halt to Prosecutions at Guantánamo". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/22/washington/22gitmo.html?hp. Retrieved February 3, 2009.
- ^ "Executive Order—Presidential Records". http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/ExecutiveOrderPresidentialRecords/. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- ^ Doyle, Michael (January 23, 2009). "Obama restores some of the 'Freedom' to FOIA". McClatchy Newspapers. http://www.mcclatchydc.com/251/story/60661.html. Retrieved January 24, 2009.
- ^ Gerstein, Josh (January 24, 2009). "Obama: End Abortion 'Politicization'". Politico.com. http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0109/17898.html.
- ^ "Obama Signs Equal-Pay Legislation". New York Times. January 30, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/30/us/politics/30ledbetter-web.html. Retrieved June 15, 2009.
- ^ Levey, Noam N.. "Obama signs into law expansion of SCHIP health-care program for children". Chicago Tribune. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/chi-kids-health-care_thufeb05,0,30310.story. Retrieved June 15, 2009.
- ^ "Obama overturns Bush policy on stem cells". CNN. March 9, 2009. http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/03/09/obama.stem.cells/index.html. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ^ "Senate confirms Sotomayor for Supreme Court". CNN. August 6, 2009. http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/08/06/sonia.sotomayor/. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
- ^ Obama nominates Sotomayor to Supreme Court, CNN, accessed May 26, 2009.
- ^ New York Times
- ^ (AFP) – October 1, 2009 (October 1, 2009). "Google.com". Google.com. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5ip53lrBGDBrm5QYg-npRkHn4ggRA. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ^ "Obama Signs Defense Policy Bill That Includes 'Hate Crime' Legislation". Foxnews.com. October 28, 2009. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/10/28/obama-signs-billion-defense-policy/. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ^ "New England's largest GLBT newspaper". Bay Windows. October 28, 2009. http://www.baywindows.com/index.php?ch=news&sc=glbt&sc2=news&sc3=&id=98285. Retrieved February 19, 2010.
- ^ "Obama signs hate crimes bill into law". CNN. October 28, 2009. http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/10/28/hate.crimes/index.html. Retrieved February 19, 2010.
- ^ March 30, 2010 (March 30, 2010). "H.R. 4872 Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act | Law of the Land | Breaking News WorldNewsVine". Worldnewsvine.com. http://worldnewsvine.com/2010/03/h-r-4872-health-care-and-education-reconciliation-act-law-of-the-land/comment-page-1/. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ^ Parsons, Christi (March 30, 2010). "Obama signs student loan reforms into law". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/health/healthcare/la-na-obama-college31-2010mar31,0,7260807.story. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ^ "Obama signs higher education measure into law". The Washington Post. http://voices.washingtonpost.com/44/2010/03/obama-signs-higher-education-m.html. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
- ^ "Obama Signs Health Care Reconciliation Bill". Rttnews.com. March 30, 2010. http://www.rttnews.com/Content/PoliticalNews.aspx?Node=B1&Id=1255618. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ^ Robert Block and Mark K. Matthews White House won't fund NASA moon program; President Obama's budget proposal includes no money for the Ares I and Ares V rocket or Constellation program. Instead, NASA would be asked to monitor climate change and develop a new rocket. January 27, 2010 LA Times
- ^ "Stimulus package en route to Obama's desk". CNN (Turner Broadcasting System, Inc). February 14, 2009. http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/02/13/stimulus/index.html. Retrieved March 29, 2009.
- ^ "Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget, Stimulus Watch". http://www.usbudgetwatch.org/stimulus. [dead link]
- "Obama's remarks on signing the stimulus plan". CNN. February 17, 2009. http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/02/17/obama.stimulus.remarks/. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
- ^ Andrews, Edmund L.; Dash, Eric (March 23, 2009). "U.S. Expands Plan to Buy Banks' Troubled Assets". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/24/business/economy/24bailout.html. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
- ^ "White House questions viability of GM, Chrysler". The Huffington Post. March 30, 2009. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/03/30/obama-denies-bailout-fund_n_180563.html.
- ^ Bunkley, Nick; Vlasic, Bill (April 27, 2009). "Chrysler and Union Agree to Deal Before Federal Deadline". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/27/business/27chrysler.html?_r=2&bl&ex=1240977600&en=670e4df8295b2843&ei=5087%0A. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
- ^ John Hughes, Caroline Salas, Jeff Green, and Bob Van Voris (June 1, 2009). "GM Begins Bankruptcy Process With Filing for Affiliate". Bloomberg. http://bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=aw4F_L7E4xYg.
- ^ Conkey, Christopher; Radnofsky, Louise (June 9, 2009). "Obama Presses Cabinet to Speed Stimulus Spending". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124445867883193821.html.
- ^ Dana Hedgpeth (August 21, 2009). "U.S. Says 'Cash for Clunkers' Program Will End on Monday". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/08/20/AR2009082002699.html. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
- ^ Joseph R. Szczesny (August 26, 2009). "Was Cash for Clunkers a Success?". Time. http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1918692,00.html. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
- ^ Goldman, David (April 6, 2009). "CNNMoney.com's bailout tracker". Bailout tracker 06: 20. http://money.cnn.com/news/storysupplement/economy/bailouttracker/. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
- ^ Montgomery, Lori (2010-07-24). "Federal budget deficit to exceed $1.4 trillion in 2010 and 2011". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/07/23/AR2010072304101.html?hpid=topnews. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- ^ Jeff Mason, Alister Bull (2010-02-01). "Obama's 2010 budget: deficit soars amid job spending". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE60U00220100201. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- ^ Dickson, David M. (2010-03-26). "CBO report: Debt will rise to 90% of GDP". Washington Times/Associated Press. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2010/mar/26/cbos-2020-vision-debt-will-rise-to-90-of-gdp/?page=1. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- ^ 12:20 p.m. Today12:20 p.m. Feb. 19, 2010 (January 8, 2010). "Payrolls fall 85,000 as jobless rate stays at 10% Economic Report". MarketWatch. http://www.marketwatch.com/story/payrolls-fall-85000-as-jobless-rate-stays-at-10-2010-01-08?reflink=MW_news_stmp. Retrieved February 19, 2010.
- ^ "Employment Situation Summary". Economic News Release. U.S. Department of Labor. 2010-07-02. http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- ^ "Gross Domestic Product: First Quarter 2010". National Economic Accounts. Bureau of Economic Analysis. 2010-06-25. http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/national/gdp/gdpnewsrelease.htm. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- ^ "Fourth quarter US GDP growth fastest in six years". Financial Times. January 29, 2010. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/32b99e0c-0cd6-11df-b8eb-00144feabdc0.html. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ^ Harding, Robin (2010-07-28). "Beige Book survey reports signs of slowdown". Financial Times. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/dac3245a-9a7b-11df-87fd-00144feab49a.html. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- ^ "CBO.gov" (PDF). http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/110xx/doc11044/02-23-ARRA.pdf. Retrieved 2010-08-08.
- ^ NYtimes.com
- ^ "CBO: Stimulus created as many as 2.1 million jobs". February 23, 2010. http://thehill.com/blogs/blog-briefing-room/news/83253-cbo-stimulus-created-as-many-as-21-million-jobs. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- ^ New Consensus Sees Stimulus Package as Worthy Step
- ^ Too Little of a Good Thing
- ^ Isidore, Chris (January 29, 2010). "Best economic growth in six years". Money.cnn.com. http://money.cnn.com/2010/01/29/news/economy/gdp/index.htm. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ^ "Estimated Impact of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act on Employment and Economic Output". Cbo.gov. http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/106xx/doc10682/Frontmatter.2.2.shtml. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- ^ "New NABE Survey Shows Business Recovery Gaining Momentum, with More Jobs Ahead". http://www.nabe.com/publib/indsum.html. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
- ^ a b Sweet, Lynn, "Obama July 22, 2009 press conference. Transcript", Chicago Sun-Times, July 22, 2009
- ^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay; Zeleny, Jeff (September 9, 2009). "Obama, Armed With Details, Says Health Plan Is Necessary". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/10/us/politics/10obama.html.
- ^ "Obama will hedge on public option" – Politico.com. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
- ^ "Obama calls for Congress to face health care challenge". CNN. September 9, 2009. http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/09/09/obama.speech/index.html. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
- ^ Hulse, Carl; Robert Pear (November 7, 2009). "Sweeping Health Care Plan Passes House". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/08/health/policy/08health.html?partner=rss&emc=rss. Retrieved November 8, 2009.
- ^ Herszenhorn, David M.; Jackie Calmes (December 7, 2009). "Abortion Was at Heart of Wrangling". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/08/health/policy/08scene.html. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
- ^ Hensley, Scott (December 24, 2009). "Senate Says Yes To Landmark Health Bill". National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=121854289. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
- ^ "Health Care Reform, at Last". The New York Times. March 21, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/22/opinion/22mon5.html. Retrieved March 22, 2010.
- ^ Gay Stolberg, Sheryl (March 23, 2010). "Obama Signs Landmark Health Care Bill". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/24/health/policy/24health.html. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- ^ "Obama Halts Drilling Projects, Defends Actions". National Public Radio. May 27, 2010. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=127205462&ps=rs.
- ^ Jonsson, Patrik (May 29, 2010). "Gulf oil spill: Obama's big political test". The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Politics/2010/0529/Gulf-oil-spill-Obama-s-big-political-test. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
- ^ Hechtkopf, Kevin (April 30, 2010). "Obama Promises Review of Gulf Oil Spill". Political Hotsheet (CBS News). http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503544_162-20003862-503544.html. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
- ^ Oliphant, James; Nicholas, Peter (June 1, 2010). "Gulf oil spill: Obama administration launches criminal probe of rig explosion". Greenspace (blog) (Los Angeles Times). http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/greenspace/2010/06/gulf-oil-spill-obama-administration-launches-criminal-probe-of-rig-explosion-.html. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
- ^ Etter, Lauren; Favole, Jared A. (June 1, 2010). "U.S. Opens Criminal Probe Into Spill". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704875604575280363277341150.html?mod=WSJ_WSJ_US_PoliticsNCampaign. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
- ^ Raum, Tom; Loven, Jennifer (May 28, 2010). "Fixing oil spill my responsibility, Obama says". Yahoo News. Associated Press. http://finance.yahoo.com/news/Fixing-oil-spill-my-apf-651098015.html?x=0&.v=27. Retrieved June 10, 2010.
- ^ "Biden vows break with Bush era foreign policy". http://www.canada.com/news/unveils+changes+foreign+policy/1265065/story.html. Retrieved June 15, 2009.
- ^ "Obama reaches out to Muslim world on TV". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/28869185/. Retrieved June 15, 2009.
- ^ DeYoung, Karen (April 9, 2009). "washingtonpost.com> Nation U.S. to Join Talks on Iran's Nuclear Program". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/04/08/AR2009040802254.html. Retrieved June 15, 2009.
- ^ "Iranian Leaders Ignore Obama's Outstretched Hand". Fox News Channel. March 20, 2009. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/first100days/2009/03/20/iranian-leaders-ignore-obamas-outstretched-hand/. Retrieved June 15, 2009.
- ^ "Obama speech draws praise in Mideast". The Guardian (London). January 23, 2008. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/8443248. Retrieved June 15, 2009.
- ^ Obama in Egypt reaches out to Muslim world, CNN, June 4, 2009
- Jeff Zeleny and Alan Cowell, Addressing Muslims, Obama Pushes Mideast Peace, The New York Times, June 4, 2009.
- Jesse Lee (June 3, 2009). "The President in the Middle East". White House. http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/The-President-in-the-Middle-East/. Retrieved June 4, 2009.
- ^ "Obama dismisses Ahmadinejad apology request". The Washington Times. June 26, 2009. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2009/jun/26/obama-dismisses-ahmadinejad-apology-request/.
- ^ Obama: No green light for Israel to attack Iran, CNN, July 7, 2009
- ^ Chidanand Rajghatta, "Barack 'No Bomb' Obama pushes for world without nukes", Times of India, September 24, 2009.
- ^ Robert Berger, "Israel Refuses to Halt Construction in East Jerusalem", Voice of America, March 26, 2010.
- ^ Kershner, Isabel (March 24, 2010). "Israel Confirms New Building in East Jerusalem". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/25/world/middleeast/25jerusalem.html. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
- ^ Peter Baker, "Obama Seals Arms Control Deal With Russia", The New York Times, March 26, 2010.
- ^ "Will Gates Stay or Go?". MSNBC. November 10, 2008. http://firstread.msnbc.msn.com/archive/2008/11/10/1667896.aspx.
- ^ Feller, Ben (February 27, 2009). "Obama sets firm withdrawal timetable for Iraq". The Detroit News. Associated Press (CAMP LEJEUNE, N.C.). http://www.detnews.com/article/20090228/POLITICS/902280332/Obama+sets+firm+Iraq+withdrawal. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
- ^ Athena Johnes Obama announces Iraq plan First Read February 27, 2009 MSNBC
- ^ BBC News: Last US combat brigade exits Iraq, 19 August 2010 Last updated at 17:56 GMT.
- ^ MacAskill, Ewen (September 1, 2010). "Barack Obama ends the war in Iraq. 'Now it's time to turn the page'". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/sep/01/obama-formally-ends-iraq-war.
- ^ NewsHour with Jim Lehrer (July 15, 2008). "Obama Calls for U.S. Military to Renew Focus on Afghanistan". Pbs.org. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/politics/july-dec08/obama_07-15.html. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ^ Hodge, Amanda (February 19, 2009). "Obama launches Afghanistan Surge". The Australian. http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,25074581-2703,00.html.
- ^ "Top U.S. Commander in Afghanistan Is Fired". The Washington Post. May 12, 2009. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/05/11/AR2009051101864.html.
- ^ "Obama to announce war strategy" Associated Press. December 1, 2009.
- ^ "Obama details Afghan war plan, troop increases" Associated Press. December 1, 2009.
- ^ President Obama's Afghanistan Speech December 1, 2009. Youtube.
- ^ "Gates says he agrees with Obama decision on McChrystal". CNN.com. June 24, 2010. http://www.cnn.com/2010/POLITICS/06/24/mcchrystal.gates.support/. Retrieved 2010-09-18.
- ^ Wallace-Wells, Benjamin (November 2004). "The Great Black Hope: What's Riding on Barack Obama?". Washington Monthly. http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2004/0411.wallace-wells.html. Retrieved April 7, 2008. See also:Scott, Janny (December 28, 2007). "A Member of a New Generation, Obama Walks a Fine Line". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/12/28/america/obama.php. Retrieved April 7, 2008.
- ^ Paul Harris in New York (March 4, 2007). "Obama told of family's slave-owning history in deep South | World news | The Observer". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/mar/04/uselections2008.barackobama. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ^ Payne, Les (August 19, 2007). "In One Country, a Dual Audience" (paid archive). Newsday (New York). http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/newsday/access/1322008241.html?dids=1322008241:1322008241&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved April 7, 2008.
- ^ Dorning, Mike (October 4, 2007). "Obama Reaches Across Decades to JFK" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/1353513781.html?dids=1353513781:1353513781&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Oct+4%2C+2007&author=Mike+Dorning. Retrieved April 7, 2008. See also:Harnden, Toby (October 15, 2007). "Barack Obama is JFK Heir, Says Kennedy Aide". Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1565992/Barack-Obama-is-JFK-heir%2C-says-Kennedy-aide.html. Retrieved April 7, 2008.
- ^ Holmes, Stephanie (November 30, 2008). "Obama: Oratory and originality". The Age (Melbourne). http://www.theage.com.au/world/a-classic-orator-obama-learnt-from-the-masters-20081129-6nf1.html. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
- Gallo, Carmine (March 3, 2008). "How to Inspire People Like Obama Does". BusinessWeek. http://www.businessweek.com/smallbiz/content/mar2008/sb2008033_156351.htm. Retrieved February 21, 2009.
- Zlomislic, Diana (December 11, 2008). "New emotion dubbed 'elevation". Toronto Star. http://www.thestar.com/living/article/551538. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
- ^ "YouTube – ChangeDotGov's Channel". Youtube.com. http://www.youtube.com/user/ChangeDotGov. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ^ "Mixed Views of Obama at Year End". Pew Research Center. December 16, 2009. http://people-press.org/report/572/mixed-views-of-obama-at-year-end. Retrieved December 30, 2009.
- ^ Page, Susan (June 12, 2008). "World poll: Obama more likely to 'do the right thing'". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/election2008/2008-06-12-poll_N.htm. Retrieved March 10, 2009.
- ^ "World wants Obama as president: poll". ABC News. Reuters (Australia). September 9, 2008. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/09/09/2360240.htm?section=world.
- ^ Obama.senate.gov (August 24, 2005). "Obama to visit nuclear, biological weapons destruction facilities in former Soviet Union". Press release. http://obama.senate.gov/press/050823-obama_to_visit/.
- ^ Quel giorno di tre anni fa a Washington Barack mi raccontò la sua speranza Rome Mayor's Leadership Bid May Lead to Early Italian Elections; VELTRONI A NEW YORK – Il politico prevale sull' amministratore
- ^ Pedder, Sophie (February 20, 2008). "Sarkozy, Obama and McCain". The Economist. http://www.economist.com/blogs/certainideasofeurope/2008/02/sarkozy_obama_and_mccain.cfm. Retrieved November 20, 2008.
- ^ France 24 | Obama remains a popular symbol of hope | France 24.
- ^ Goodman, Dean (February 10, 2008). "Obama or Clinton? Grammys go for Obama". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/musicNews/idUSN0852813420080210. Retrieved November 24, 2008.
- ^ Strange, Hannah (March 5, 2008). "Celebrities join YouTube revolution". The Times (UK) (London). http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/film/article3491460.ece. Retrieved December 18, 2008.
- ^ Wappler, Margaret (June 20, 2008). "Emmys give knuckle bump to will.i.am; more videos on the way". Los Angeles Times. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/soundboard/2008/06/emmys-give-knuc.html. Retrieved December 18, 2008.
- ^ Von Drehle, David (December 16, 2008). "Why History Can't Wait" (Cover article). Time Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/specials/2008/personoftheyear/article/0,31682,1861543_1865068,00.html?cnn=yes. Retrieved December 17, 2008.
- ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2009". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2009/. Retrieved October 9, 2009.
- ^ "Obama: Peace requires responsibility". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/12/10/obama.transcript/index.html.
- ^ Philp, Catherine (October 10, 2009). "Barack Obama's peace prize starts a fight". The Times (London: TimesOnLine). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_americas/article6868905.ece. Retrieved October 10, 2009.
- ^ By Darren Samuelsohn of Greenwire (October 9, 2009). "Obama Wins Nobel Prize in Part for Confronting 'Great Climatic Challenges'". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/gwire/2009/10/09/09greenwire-obama-wins-nobel-prize-in-part-for-confronting-55250.html. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
- ^ Rushmore Plus One; FDR joins Mountainside Figures Washington, Jefferson, Teddy Roosevelt and Lincoln as Top Presidents, Siena Research Institute, July 1, 2010
- ^ "2005 U.S. Senate Votes". American Conservative Union. http://www.conservative.org/ratings/2005Senate.htm. Retrieved September 20, 2008. ;"2006 U.S. Senate Votes". American Conservative Union. http://www.conservative.org/ratings/ratingsarchive/2006/2006senate.htm. Retrieved September 20, 2008. ;"2007 U.S. Senate Votes". American Conservative Union. http://www.conservative.org/ratings/2007senate.htm. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- ^ "ADA's 2005 Congressional Voting Record" (PDF). Americans for Democratic Action. http://www.adaction.org/media/votingrecords/2005.pdf. Retrieved September 20, 2008. ;"ADA's 2006 Congressional Voting Record" (PDF). Americans for Democratic Action. http://www.adaction.org/media/votingrecords/2006.pdf. Retrieved September 20, 2008. ;"ADA's 2007 Congressional Voting Record" (PDF). Americans for Democratic Action. http://www.adaction.org/media/votingrecords/2007.pdf. Retrieved September 20, 2008.
- ^ Franklin, Ben A (June 1, 2005). "The Fifth Black Senator in U.S. History Makes F.D.R. His Icon". Washington Spectator. http://www.washingtonspectator.com/articles/20050601obama_1.cfm. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- ^ Zeleny, Jeff (September 12, 2005). "Judicious Obama Turns Up Volume". Chicago Tribune. http://www.acesse.com/cache.php?id=412653&q=clinton%20global%20initiative. Retrieved March 12, 2009. [dead link]
- ^ Pickler, Nedra (January 25, 2007). "Obama Calls for Universal Health Care within Six Years". Union-Tribune (San Diego). Associated Press. http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/politics/20070125-1240-democrats-healthcare.html. Retrieved January 14, 2008. [dead link]
- ^ Davis, Teddy; Sunlen Miller (November 20, 2007). "Obama Bucks Party Line on Education". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/Story?id=3894699. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- ^ "Study:Bush tax cuts favor wealthy". CBS. August 13, 2004. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/08/16/politics/main636398.shtml. Retrieved April 5, 2008.
- ^ "Obama Tax Plan: $80 Billion in Cuts, Five-Minute Filings". CNN. September 18, 2007. http://www.cnn.com/2007/POLITICS/09/18/obama.taxplan/. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- ^ Zeleny, Jeff (October 9, 2007). "Obama Proposes Capping Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Making Polluters Pay". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/09/us/politics/09obama.html. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- ^ Barack Obama. "The Blueprint for Change: Barack Obama's plan for America" (PDF). Obama for America. http://www.barackobama.com/pdf/ObamaBlueprintForChange.pdf. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
- ^ Obama, Barack (March 2, 2007). "AIPAC Policy Forum Remarks". Barack Obama U.S. Senate Office. http://obama.senate.gov/speech/070302-aipac_policy_fo/index.php. Retrieved January 30, 2008. (Archive copy at the Wayback Machine.) For Obama's 2004 Senate campaign remarks on possible missile strikes against Iran, see:Mendell, David (September 25, 2004). "Obama Would Consider Missile Strikes on Iran" (paid archive). Chicago Tribune. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/699578571.html?dids=699578571:699578571&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- ^ "Obama Warns Pakistan on Al-Qaeda". BBC News. August 1, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6926663.stm. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- ^ Obama, Barack. (October 22, 2007) (Flash video). Obama-Caucus4Priorities. You Tube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7o84PE871BE. Retrieved May 18, 2008.
- ^ Obama, Barack; Brownback, Sam (December 27, 2005). "Policy Adrift on Darfur". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/26/AR2005122600547.html. Retrieved January 14, 2008. Doyle, Jim (May 1, 2006). "Tens of Thousands Rally for Darfur". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/05/01/MNGFBIIFOA1.DTL. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- ^ Kuhnhenn, Jim (May 17, 2007). "Giuliani, Edwards Have Sudan Holdings". San Francisco Chronicle. Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 8, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080608221733/http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2007/05/17/politics/p171906D95.DTL. Retrieved January 14, 2008. ;Obama, Barack (August 30, 2007). "Hit Iran Where It Hurts". Daily News (NewYork). http://www.nydailynews.com/opinions/2007/08/30/2007-08-30_hit_iran_where_it_hurts.html. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
- ^ "Keeping Hope Alive: Barack Obama Puts Family First". The Oprah Winfrey Show. October 18, 2006. http://www.oprah.com/slideshow/oprahshow/oprahshow1_ss_20061018/10. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
- ^ Fornek, Scott (September 9, 2007). "Half Siblings: 'A Complicated Family'". Chicago Sun-Times. http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/obama/familytree/545462,BSX-News-wotrees09.stng. Retrieved June 24, 2008. See also:"Interactive Family Tree". Chicago Sun-Times. September 9, 2007. http://www.suntimes.com/images/cds/special/family_tree.html. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
- ^ Fornek, Scott (September 9, 2007). "Madelyn Payne Dunham: 'A Trailblazer'". Chicago Sun-Times. http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/obama/familytree/545449,BSX-News-wotreeee09.stng. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
- ^ "Obama's grandmother dies after battle with cancer". CNN. November 3, 2008. http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/11/03/obama.grandma/index.html. Retrieved November 4, 2008.
- ^ Obama (1995, 2004), p. 13. For reports on Obama's maternal genealogy, including slave owners, Irish connections, and common ancestors with George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, and Harry Truman, see:Nitkin, David; Harry Merritt (March 2, 2007). "A New Twist to an Intriguing Family History". Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070930033339/http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/nationworld/politics/bal-te.obama02mar02,0,3453027.story. Retrieved June 24, 2008. Jordan, Mary (May 13, 2007). "Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/12/AR2007051201551.html. Retrieved June 24, 2008. "Obama's Family Tree Has a Few Surprises". CBS 2 (Chicago). Associated Press. September 8, 2007. Archived from the original on June 2, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080602215833/http://cbs2chicago.com/topstories/Barack.Obama.family.2.339709.html. Retrieved June 24, 2008.
- ^ Johnson, Carla K., Associated Press Writer (July 24, 2008). "Obama's great-uncle recalls liberating Nazi camp". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/politics/2008-07-24-1654309354_x.htm. Retrieved March 12, 2009.
- ^ "The 89th Infantry Division". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10006140. Retrieved March 12, 2009.
- ^ "When Barry Became Barack". Newsweek. March 31, 2008. http://www.newsweek.com/id/128633. Retrieved November 6, 2008.
- ^ Zimmer, Benjamin (2009). "Obama's Indonesian Redux". Language Log. http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=1025. Retrieved March 12, 2009.
- ^ Kantor, Jodi (June 1, 2007). "One Place Where Obama Goes Elbow to Elbow". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/01/us/politics/01hoops.html. Retrieved April 28, 2008. See also:"The Love of the Game" (video). HBO: Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel (YouTube (BarackObama.com)). April 15, 2008. http://www.hbo.com/realsports/stories/2008/episode.133.s1.html. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
- ^ "Senator Barack Obama Visit to CJTF-HOA and Camp Lemonier: August 31 – September 1, 2006" (video). Combined Joint Task Force—Horn of Africa (YouTube). February 6, 2007. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d9GqdzQeCz0. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
- ^ a b Branigin, William (January 30, 2009). "Steelers Win Obama's Approval". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/01/29/AR2009012903196.html. "But other than the Bears, the Steelers are probably the team that's closest to my heart. All right?"
- ^ "Barack Obama: White Sox 'serious' ball". The Swamp. August 25, 2008. http://www.swamppolitics.com/news/politics/blog/2008/08/barack_obama_white_sox_serious.html. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
- ^ "Barack Obama Explains White Sox Jacket, Talks Nats in All-Star Booth Visit". MLB Fanhouse. July 14, 2009. http://mlb.fanhouse.com/2009/07/14/barack-obama-explains-white-sox-jacket-talks-nats-in-all-star-b/. Retrieved December 6, 2009.
- ^ "President-elect Obama Likely To Root For The Steelers". kdka.com. January 14, 2009. http://kdka.com/politics/Barack.Obama.Steelers.2.908698.html. Retrieved February 19, 2010.
- ^ Obama (2006), pp. 327–332. See also:Brown, Sarah (December 7, 2005). "Obama '85 masters balancing act". The Daily Princetonian. http://www.dailyprincetonian.com/2005/12/07/14049. Retrieved February 9, 2009.
- ^ Obama (2006), p. 329.
- ^ Fornek, Scott (October 3, 2007). "Michelle Obama: 'He Swept Me Off My Feet'". Chicago Sun-Times. http://www.suntimes.com/news/politics/obama/585261,CST-NWS-wedding03.stng. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
- ^ Martin, Jonathan (July 4, 2008). "Born on the 4th of July". The Politico. http://www.politico.com/blogs/jonathanmartin/0708/Born_on_the_4th_of_July.html. Retrieved July 10, 2008.
- ^ Obama (1995, 2004), p. 440, and Obama (2006), pp. 339–340. See also:"Election 2008 Information Center: Barack Obama". Gannett News Service. http://www.gannettnewsservice.com/?cat=153. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
- ^ "Obamas choose private Sidwell Friends School", International Herald Tribune, November 22, 2008
- ^ One Obama Search Ends With a Puppy Named Bo
- ^ Zeleny, Jeff (December 24, 2005). "The first time around: Sen. Obama's freshman year". Chicago Tribune. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/local/chi-051224obama,0,1779783,full.story. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
- ^ Slevin, Peter (December 17, 2006). "Obama says he regrets land deal with fundraiser". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/16/AR2006121600729.html. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
- ^ Harris, Marlys (December 7, 2007). "Obama's Money". CNNMoney.com. http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2007/moneymag/0712/gallery.candidates.moneymag/5.html. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
See also:Goldfarb, Zachary A (March 24, 2007). "Measuring Wealth of the '08 Candidates". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/24/AR2007032400305.html. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
- ^ Zeleny, Jeff (April 17, 2008). "Book Sales Lifted Obamas' Income in 2007 to a Total of $4.2 Million". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/17/us/politics/17obama.html. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
- ^ "Obama says he won't be smoking in White House". Reuters. December 7, 2008. http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSTRE4B61GF20081207. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
- ^ "Obama in good health, but still smokes"[dead link], KABC-TV, February 28, 2010. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
- ^ Hook, Janet (March 1, 2010), "Obama in excellent health, doctor says, but he should quit smoking", Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 28, 2010.
- ^ Calica, Aurea (June 11, 2010). "Obama offers to help Noy quit smoking". The Philippine Star. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
- ^ a b Obama 'Christian By Choice': President Responds To Questioner by Charles Babington and Darlene Superville, AP, September 28, 2010
- ^ a b Video - President Obama: "I am a Christian By Choice" by ABC News, September 29, 2010
- ^ Kantor, Jodi (April 30, 2007). "Barack Obama's search for faith". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/04/30/america/30obama.php?page=2. April 30, 2007
- Obama, Barack (October 23, 2006). "My Spiritual Journey". Time. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1546579,00.html.
- ^ "Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized". Associated Press. MSNBC. November 17, 2008. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/27775757/. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
- ^ Sullivan, Amy (June 29, 2009). "The Obamas Find a Church Home—Away from Home". Time. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1907610,00.html. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
- Mendell, David (2007). Obama: From Promise to Power. New York: Amistad/HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-085820-6.
- Obama, Barack (1995, 2004). Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 1-4000-8277-3.
- Obama, Barack (2006). The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. New York: Crown Publishing Group. ISBN 0-307-23769-9.
- Curry, Jessica. "Barack Obama: Under the Lights", Chicago Life, Fall 2004. Retrieved on January 14, 2008.
- Graff, Garrett. "The Legend of Barack Obama", Washingtonian, November 1, 2006. Retrieved on January 14, 2008.
- Koltun, Dave (2005) "The 2004 Illinois Senate Race: Obama Wins Open Seat and Becomes National Political "Star"" in "The Road to Congress 2004" Editors: Sunil Ahuja (Youngstown State University) and Robert Dewhirst (Truman State University), Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, New York, Binding: Hardcover Pub. Date: 2005, ISBN 1-59454-360-7
- Lizza, Ryan. "Above the Fray", GQ, September 2007. Retrieved on October 27, 2010.
- MacFarquhar, Larissa. "The Conciliator: Where is Barack Obama Coming From?", New Yorker, May 7, 2007. Retrieved on January 14, 2008.
- McClelland, Edward, Young Mr. Obama: Chicago and the Making of a Black President, Bloomsbury Press, 2010.
- Mundy, Liza. "A Series of Fortunate Events", The Washington Post Magazine, August 12, 2007. Retrieved on January 14, 2008.
- Wallace-Wells, Ben. "Destiny's Child",[dead link] Rolling Stone, February 7, 2007. Retrieved on January 14, 2008.
- Zutter, Hank De. "What Makes Obama Run?", Chicago Reader, December 8, 1995. Retrieved on January 14, 2008.
|Find more about Barack Obama on Wikipedia's sister projects:|
|Images and media from Commons |
|News stories from Wikinews |
|Quotations from Wikiquote |
|Source texts from Wikisource |
- Official sites
- President Barack Obama official White House website
- BarackObama.com (official website)
- Barack Obama at the Open Directory Project
- Works by or about Barack Obama in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- News media
- Appearances on C-SPAN programs
- "Education of a President". Editorial by Peter Baker in the New York Times Magazine.
- Congressional links
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Voting record maintained by The Washington Post
- Biography, voting record, and interest group ratings at Project Vote Smart
- Biography at WhoRunsGov.com at The Washington Post
- Congressional profile at GovTrack.us
- Issue positions and quotes at On The Issues
- Financial information at OpenSecrets.org
- Staff salaries, trips and personal finance at LegiStorm.com
- Campaign finance reports and data at the Federal Election Commission
- Campaign contributions at the National Institute for Money in State Politics
|Short description||american politician, 44th President of the United States|
|Date of birth||August 4, 1961|
|Place of birth||Honolulu, Hawaii, United States|
|Date of death|
|Place of death|