Saturday, April 30, 2011

Kerala govt seeks blanket ban on endosulphan! ENDOSULFAN Governance of Zionist Brahaminical Hegemony aligned with US Corporate Imperialism has to be RESTRAINED to save the Agrarian India!Liberation is Day Dream as yet!

Kerala govt seeks blanket ban on endosulphan!

ENDOSULFAN Governance of Zionist Brahaminical Hegemony aligned with US  Corporate Imperialism  has to be RESTRAINED to save the Agrarian India!Liberation is Day Dream as yet!


Indian Holocaust My Father`s Life and Time - SIX HUNDRED TWENTY SIX

Palash Biswas

http://indianholocaustmyfatherslifeandtime.blogspot.com/

http://basantipurtimes.blogspot.com/

An international conference in Geneva has agreed to add endosulfan, an antiquated persistent insecticide, to the Stockholm Convention's list of banned substances. For most uses the ban will take effect in a year, but use on a short list of crop-pest combinations will be phased out over a six-year period.
Environmental health and justice organisations from around the world who have been working towards a ban welcomed the decision.
The use of endosulfan has severely impacted the people of Kerala, where its use on cashew plantations has left thousands suffering from birth defects, mental retardation, and cancer.
Because of its persistence, bio-accumulation, and mobility, endosulfan, like DDT, travels on wind and ocean currents to the Arctic where it contaminates the environment and traditional foods of the people who live there.

I had been insisting that Green Revolution was the beginning of Foreign capital Influx and Second phase of Green Revolution means the Beginning of New Era of LPG Mafia Raj in India RESULTANT in Mass Destruction. Indian Agrarina  Aboriginal Indigenous Masse EXCLUDED have been inflicted with Pesticides, Genetically Modified Seeds, Fertilisers and Innundating Big Dams with INFRASTRUCTURE Displacing the Rural Demography in Infinite EXODUS! Endosulphan Governance of zionist Brahaminical hegemony aligned with US Corporate Imperialism has to be RESTRAINED to save the Agrarian India!Liberation is Day Dream as yet!

While the representatives of world countries sat together in Geneva and decided to impose a global ban on the dangerous pesticide endosulphan, the southern state of Kerala is rejoicing the victory of its cause. And it revels in the success of the new method of protests in which the whole state including the people and government along with the media fought for a common cause and won. Kerala, in a way, stood above the Indian government in Geneva as the voice of the people of India.

At the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in Geneva, India on Friday said it will ban using Endosulfan, with exception of few crops.


"We are joining the consensus, but of course, we will look forward to adequate and timely work on safe and cost-effective alternatives being worked out in the phase-out period," said Gauri Kumar, Additional Secretary of Ministry of Environment and Forests, who headed the Indian delegation in Geneva.


At present, India is the largest exporter of Endosulfan in the world.


Pertinently, Kerala Chief Minister VS Achuthanandan on Thursday said he has written to his counterparts in other states to support him on nationwide ban on Endosulfan pesticide and Central assistance for victims of the particular pesticide.


Highlighting the side-effects of using pesticides, Achuthanandan, in his letter, said over 400 people have died of Endosulfan in Kerala's Kasargode district in the last few years, while hundreds are suffering from various diseases.


The Kerala CM on Apr 25 had launched a day-long hunger strike here demanding a nationwide ban on Endosulfan pesticide.


Achuthanandan began the seven-hour long hunger strike from 10 am here with the participation of over 500 people from various walks of society.


The state ministers led similar protests in other parts of the state, including at Kasaragod where nearly 5000 people have been seriously affected by Endosulfan.


Achuthanandan hit out at the Centre for not banning Endosulfan even though its negative impact has been proven.


He said the Prime Minister has been 'wrongly briefed' by his colleagues on the effects of the pesticide.


"It was strange that the Centre adopted a stand that people in every state should be affected by the pesticide before considering a nationwide ban," the chief minister said, referring to the Centre's stand that more than one state must report the negative effect of Endosulfan to ban it.


Kerala, which has already banned the pesticide, has been demanding a nationwide ban on it.

Global phaseout of endosulfan soon?

T Ramavarman & Ananthakrishnan G, TNN | Apr 30, 2011, 05.08am IST
KOCHI/THIRUVANANTHAPURAM: The consensus arrived at the Stockholm Convention on Friday for a gradual global ban on endosulfan has ushered in a sense of jubilation in Kerala. The state has witnessed agitations against the pesticide.

The fact that the ban will take effect in a phased manner has upset some of those who have been waging a battle against the compound, which allegedly spurred a series of deaths and genetic disorders among people and livestock in Kasargode district.

The news of the Stockholm resolution came in just as the dawn-to-dusk hartal called by Left parties demanding a nationwide ban on endosulfan was nearing its end. The Left was quick to see it as a victory of its struggle. CM V S Achuthanandan welcomed it, saying that this had become possible because of the collective international pressure which forced the participating nations to back a ban.

Barring some stray incidents, the hartal was peaceful. Shops, commercial establishments and educational institutions remained shut across the state while government and private offices recorded thin attendance. Hartal supporters allegedly manhandled journalists in Thodupuzha and in Kochi, they threw stones at the office of State Bank of India.

People in Kasargode, where the indiscriminate use of endosulfan since 1976 had allegedly caused major health problems, celebrated the news from Stockhom by distributing sweets. Victory processions were also held in different parts of the state in the afternoon.

Environmentalists feared that the phased ban could prove counter productive. "Such exceptions aren't granted when Persistent Organic Pollutants like endosulfan are banned because they can accumulate in the environment and cause disastrous consequences on health and environment in future," A Achyuthan, chairman of the 2001 committee appointed by the Kerala government to probe into the effects of endosulfan spraying over cashew crops of the Plantation Corporation of Kerala in Kasargode, told TOI. "This (Stockholm decision) is a moral victory. Now we should be able to focus on rehabilitating the victims," said an anti-endosulfan campaigner.
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Global-phaseout-of-endosulfan-soon/articleshow/8123098.cms

Pesticide lobby defeated, says Achuthanandan
Special Correspondent
THIRUVANANTHAPURAM: Chief Minister V.S. Achuthanandan said here on Friday that people's movements in Kerala and other States had forced the Centre to change its stand at the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.
Reports and photographs taken to the Convention from Kerala had also helped in arriving at the decision. "It was not just a campaign against the Centre but also one to create awareness of the dangers of the pesticide," the Chief Minister said expressing happiness over the development. "The resistance has succeeded and the strategies of the pesticide lobby had been defeated by the will of the people."
Mr. Achuthanandan alleged that the pesticide lobby had influenced some Union Ministers. It was that lobby which controlled officials also. However, this time it did not work because of popular pressure.
He added that the Central government had been playing with the lives of people. It was not willing to assist in providing compensation to the victims as recommended by the National Human Rights Commission.
Chandy told to clarify
Health Minister P.K. Sreemathy demanded that Leader of the Opposition Oommen Chandy clarify how Endosulfan manufacturers were given an opportunity to do lobbying in Geneva. The pesticide lobby was working as if it was part of the Indian delegation to the Stockholm Convention. This conspiracy had already come out in the open and even Congress leader V.M. Sudheeran had deplored it, she said.
The Minister said that independent observers from Kerala to the convention had helped in presenting in Geneva the details of the tragedy in Kerala and the measures taken by the State government. They had even faced threats while in Geneva from the lobbyists. Questions whether a Kerala government official, Mohammed Asheel, could be an independent observer at the Convention were irrelevant. He had succeeded in portraying the realities.
News Update



http://www.hindu.com/2011/04/30/stories/2011043060000100.htm

The ruling Left Democratic Front in Kerala called a dawn-to-dusk bandh demanding a blanket ban on the production ofendosulphan. Hospitals, milk and newspapers were exempted from the 6 am to 6 pm bandh.

Just a few days ago, Kerala Chief Minister V.S. Achuthanandan observed a dawn-to-dusk fast against Endosulfan.

Achuthanandan has also written to other states requesting them to put pressure on the Centre to impose a ban on the pesticide.

On Friday, at the Geneva meet of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, India announced its support to the global phase-out of the controversial chemical over the next 11 years. The convention opposed the use of pests in 16 crops, most of which were demanded by India.

Kerala observes shutdown to demand endosulfan ban

Thiruvananthapuram, April 29 (IANS) A shutdown across Kerala Friday, called by the ruling Left Front to demand a ban on the pesticide endosulfan, affected normal life in the state as vehicles kept off the roads and shops and offices remained closed.

Across the state, roads remained deserted, markets were closed and those who tried to open their shops were forcibly made to down shutters. Even normal banking operations remained affected.

A public sector bank in the commercial capital of Kochi that opened saw its glass panels smashed by angry protesters.

Passengers at railway stations and airports were left stranded with no public transport in sight, even though the government had announced that state-owned buses would operate.

'Why is this shutdown menace recurring so frequently only in Kerala? The government is holding the state to ransom on one pretext or the other,' said an angry passenger here.

The shutdown was called to protest the central government's delay in banning the endosulphan pesticide, whose use the Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPI-M) had defended in the past.

In December 1999, during the Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPI-M)-led Left Front's rule, a group of Leftist trade union activists had attacked those who opposed endosulphan in Kasargode. The protesters were attacked when marching against the aerial spraying of endosulfan in the cashew plantations of the state-owned Plantation Corporation of Kerala.

The CPI-M activists had then said the pesticide was necessary to keep the plantations running.

The opposition Congress Friday said the shutdown was a political stunt as the Left Front fears loss of power in the assembly elections, the results of which will be declared May 13.

'It was during Congress rule (2001-2006) that the use of endosulfan was banned in the state,' Oommen Chandy, leader of opposition, said here Friday.

About 500 deaths related to endosulfan use have been officially registered in 11 villages of Kasargode district since 1995. The spraying of the harmful pesticide in the district began in the early 1970s and continued till 2001.

Meanwhile, Chief Minister V.S. Achuthanandan expressed happiness over the news that the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in Geneva has decided to globally ban endosulfan.

The Chief Minister's Office Friday informed the media persons here that those who took part in the Geneva meeting have informed Achuthanandan that the meeting has decided for a global ban on endosulfan.

'This is the victory of the people. Reports from Kerala and pictures of the affected from here were displayed in Geneva,' said Achuthanandan.

State Forest Minister Binoy Viswan led a victory march through the main road, leading to the state secretariat.

Similar 'victory marches' were held at a few places, including at Kasargode, where the pesticide has caused maximum damage.

http://www.inewsone.com/2011/04/29/kerala-observes-shutdown-to-demand-endosulfan-ban/46983

The Second Green Revolution: A Blue-Print to Control India's Agriculture - Indo-US Treaty, New Seed Act

August 27, 2010

Written by – Dr. Abhee Dutta Majumdar, Dr. Siddharta Gupta, Partha Sarathi Dasgupta, Mrinmoy Sengupta
Published by – Lokayata Sahitya Chakra, May 7, 2010.
Translated by – Sanhati

From the nineties, India opened herself to the world market. As prescribed by the US based IMF and World Bank, India also undertook 'structural adjustment' programme. This had a two-fold effect: on the one hand it resulted in diminishing governmental spending, reduction of subsidies in different social welfare projects, divestment and privatization, while on the other hand it eliminated all hurdles to monopolistic capital to take over the production in the country. The erstwhile regulations were lifted to engineer a new paradigm where capital and product can freely travel across boundaries of the nation state.

All the essential services of civilized life, like education, health, drinking water, transportation have been effectively transformed into commodities. Rivers, mountains have been sold, forests occupied. Coastal zones regulations have been relaxed, land ceiling laws have been flouted to commission SEZs. In effect, the entire country is being sold in pieces to private capital, resulting in widespread social inequity, hunger,poverty and starvation.

According to Forbes magazine, the number of trillionaires in India jumped from 27 to 52 just in the year 2006-07. In a recent article Forbes also informs that 56 Indian firms figure in its elite list of 2000 multinationals. Though India is behind US (502) and Japan (210) in numbers, her industrialists are placed right behind those from Canada and China. After the last Loksabha elections, the number of multi-billionaires in the parliament became 300, while only the previous one had 128! In between 1989-90 and 2001-02, only 20 percent of the urban population had an increase of commodity consumption (by 40 percent), while the same period saw a net decrease in rural commodity consumption by 80 percent.

The 2009 United Nations human development index places India at 134th spot amongst 182 countries. In 2007-08 India was 128th. India is ranked first in infant mortality. The most diminutive and disabled children are born in India. The maximum number of hungry and malnourished kids can be found in India – as per the World Bank report. The annual per capita food grain availability (not purchase power) which was 177 Kgs in 1990 has gone down to 152 Kgs in 2005. The latter number is equivalent to the food grain availability in a famine-like situation. It is in such a critical juncture that Indian agriculture policies are about to be transformed radically.

Post 2009 Loksabha elections, the main ruling party in the central government has started to widely advertize a second phase of reforms. This year, the union finance minister has given the call for a 'second green revolution' in Eastern India. The essential idea is to promote widespread contract-farming and replacing cultivation of food-crops with cash-crops. Also, there will be surge in producing fruits and flowers and a voluminous increase in horticultural products, food-processing, dairy products and processed fish-meat products. Food grains will start getting imported from the government-subsidized farms of Europe and the US. The 'first green revolution' introduced petro-technology dependent agricultural practices which led many medium, small and marginal farmers to give up agriculture as they could not afford the high cost of adapting to the new age of farming. History will cruelly repeat itself as we prepare to embrace the 'second green revolution' – we shall hear the same cry of 'farming is no longer profitable' and the new bio-tech guided, petro-power driven farming will cause even more farmers to leave the land for the Tatas, Birlas, Mittals and Ambanis to delve into corporate farming.

The 'seed act' supplements this 'revolution'. The farmers' natural right of seed preservation is taken away. Using only the seeds sold by companies will become the norm. Already the agricultural giants, through their bio-tech innovations and experimentations on seeds and farm animals are exercising considerable control in this sector. The real price will be paid by the farmers of this country and this is most essential for this 'second revolution' (SGR). We shall demonstrate later in this booklet how exactly has the multi-national fiefdom been schemed in the veil of a 'second green revolution'. The ultimate aim is to bring about a transformation of our self-sufficient agricultural system into a market-driven commercial system.

Long before this public call for the SGR that we hear now, the process has been initiated through many farming contracts where the multi-nationals tied up with Indian firms to enter the business of agro-products. The Bharti-Walmart or the Tata Kisaan-Tesco joint ventures are only couple of such instances where American or British retailers have tried to tap in this untouched sector. German Metro Cash and Carry or American PepsiCo has already invested in agricultural production in India. They want to capture the huge domestic market in India as well as re-engineer Indian agricultural production to perfectly match the needs of the west. Monsanto, DuPont and Syngenta together control 40 percent of the seeds market and own 47 percent of the seeds. Bayer, Dow and a few more completely control the farm-chemicals market. Only 10 pesticide companies have 89 percent share of the market. Wal-Mart, Kroger, Carrefour and Tesco together control 40 percent of retail. And the unifications and mergers that these corporations frequently undergo are a product of the immense control that financial market exercises over them.

The centre has already admitted the failure of the 'first green revolution'. The need for the SGR is rationalized by citing that there is currently a technological stalemate in the farm sector so that we can no longer maintain the high yields. But the new agro-policies make even more vigorous use of petrochemical dependant agriculture. The epitome of India's green revolution, Punjab, has seen a huge reduction of soil fertility as admitted in a government report.

The rural people of Punjab are still suffering from the ill effects of the FGR. People are suffering from numerous health problems. Chemical pesticides are supposed to be the reason behind many cancer cases here. Train number 339 which passes through this region carries many cancer patients from Punjab to the government cancer hospital in Bikaner every day. It is known as the "cancer-train" there.

It is beyond any doubt that like the FGR, the SGR is also a US government approved, western multinational designed scheme. The plan for corporate domination is a much clearer aspect of this 'revolution' rather than it being 'green'. The state as always will provide the necessarily legal and administrative insurance. It will quell any fuming discontent. But all this will happen in a much wider and more aggressive scale. Thus, a comparative study of the FGR and the SGR is imperative. At the same time, it is desirable to consider SGR as continuation of the process set by FGR. It is an irony that what is claimed as a 'green' revolution is definitely going to be 'bloody' – the experiences of the farmers in Vidharva, Maharashtra with the BT cotton will tell the disastrous results of bio-tech experimentations in agriculture. The astronomical proportions of farmer suicide forced a legislation to keep the morgues open 24 hours a day. The green-revolution hot-bed of Punjab has similar such bloody stories to tell.

Let us reiterate that like the FGR, SGR is also a US driven project. As a part of the greater neo-liberal design, this scheme is to utilize all the tools that multi-nationals have invented to exercise complete control over world-wide production of food and also the agro-market. It is remarkable that our country's agricultural policy is crafted by a few agricultural universities and United States Agency for international Development (USAID). There is a concerted effort to link the food processing, seeds, fertilizer, pesticide, farm equipment, retail and have each segment controlled by a few multinationals. The entire process is driven by an even bigger profit motive. The research on genetically modified organisms (GMO) conducted by the Land Grant University in the US is funded by corporate money. The president of South Dakota State University has been hired as a member of the board of directors on Monsanto for an extremely high compensation.

What do multinationals want?

That investment is essentially directed to strategic production of certain crops and its export. This will be accompanied by setting up of agro-produce processing, food processing and spinning centers. May be some agro-chemical industries will follow. India will be the home for labor-intensive farming and the associated exportable agricultural products. The industrialised west wants to use India as their agricultural and food basket. There is also a clear intention of taking control of India's mineral deposits, forest produces and coastal resources. To be precise, India is to be the supplier of raw material for the west. And, also a large market to sell the finished products. This neo-imperial attack is the same horror as the British East India Company.

July 18, 2005 – Joint Statement:

On July 18, 2005, the Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh signed a number of agreements with the US president George W. Bush in Washington DC. Of these, only the civil nuclear agreement was highlighted. The parliamentary left made a big fuss about this and cried foul as the sovereignty of the country was being jeopardized (however, the urgency to organize widespread public protests against this was sadly lacking). On the same day was also signed another treaty that would affect the lives and livelihood of at least 84 percent of India's population, though it was hardly discussed anywhere or by anybody. This is the draconian Agricultural Knowledge Initiative (AKI). Recall, about 65-70 percent of Indian population is involved in agricultural production. Add to that another 14 percent who are associated with retail trade. This treaty will essentially evict all these people from their livelihood. Exercising control over the agriculture of an agricultural country like India is like controlling its entire economy.

Already, the policies that the third world governments have adopted at the behest of the IMF or the WB have all been a bane to the agriculture and also to the people related to agriculture. Reducing the import duties on the import of food crops, reducing farm subsidies, new preservation policies, genetically engineered seeds and animal proteins have all gone to fill the coffers of these multinationals.

The single most important objective of AKI is to orchestrate the SGR in India. In his speech to the US Congress, in the context of the Indo-US joint declarations and signed treaties, Manmohan Singh remarked, "US had helped India immensely during the FGR. We hope that the AKI will usher in a SGR in India". The disastrous effect of this treaty in the entire chain from cultivation to retail has already been outlined.

AKI is no windfall. It is a recipe for disaster that has been carefully perfected and fits in a greater design. The importance of 18th July, 2005 can hardly be over-emphasised. The joint declaration is undoubtedly a landmark historical document, one that is more likely to be treated as a testimony to the unimaginable betrayal of the Indian people. In every line of this declaration is hidden such abominable clauses that illustrates how using the tools of neo-liberalism and free-trade, India's policies are tailored to suit the needs of the United States of America.

The foremost subject that is captured in this declaration is the US-India Economic Dialogue. This is essentially an attempt to revive the Indo-US economic discussion and use the private sector energy to establish a CEO-platform to cement the economic ties. Trade, Investments and technology transfers would accelerate the economic growth of both the countries through cooperation. It is in this paragraph that AKI has been mentioned. Apart from this, there is reference to Indian Space Research, Indian Democratic Framework, Legal Structure etc; the American intervention in all internal matters of the country is crystal clear.

Incidentally, the 2005 tour of Manmohan saw him in the company of Ratan Tata, Mukesh Ambani, Baba Kalyani, Yogi Deveswar, Deepak Parekh and such other industrialists – these are the people who design the economic policies of the country. We discuss all this in detail below.

AKI Treaty:

Although this treaty is publicized as a 'knowledge initiative', the treaty in its entirety is spelled out as – US-India Knowledge initiative on Agriculture education, Teaching, Research, service and Commercial Linkages. The complete name conveys the expanse of this treaty. This treaty is in fact an integral part of a greater treaty called US-India Strategic Economic Partnership. A deeper inspection reveals the essential purpose of this treaty, which is to put Indian education and research to the use of the American multinationals. The recommendations of the haloed 'national knowledge commission' or the topics that dominate the Indo-US Science and Technology Forums reveal how this purpose is being served through the treaty. Questions related to our national sovereignty needs to be raised at this hour which are even more grave than those asked about the 1-2-3 nuclear treaty.

We have already pointed out that US multinational corporations are eager to establish their monopoly control over the Indian agricultural system through the AKI. Not only farming, the tentacles of AKI are spread from seed production to retail and wholesale trade, food processing, education and research, distribution of agricultural produce. The US administration, USDA (US department of agriculture), USAID (US agency of international development), different US universities have launched this attack in a concerted manner. For instance, the business school of Michigan University has drafted the contract farming document of ITC. Cornell University is involved in BT crop research.

Primarily, four fields were targeted in this pact. These were:

a) The field of education, syllabus selection, research and training.

b) Food processing and the utilization of fossil fuels.

c) Biotechnology.

d) Irrigation methods.

As usual, the pact will be implemented by a private – public partnership, or by a "PPP" model, which means that while the government will pay for the infrastructure development, the profit will only go to certain individual owners of large multinationals. These private actors would like to convert the entire world into a large food production unit, and for that purpose, are replacing agricultural production with trade-based contract farming, replacing cultivation of normal crops with farming for cash crops and production of flowers. The main objective of this is to increase export. One can say that this process is bringing back the times of the indigo cultivation, though this promises to be a lot more horrifying.

In brief, lets focus on few aspects of this treaty.

a) The main thrust of the "second green revolution" is the increase of agricultural output using large quantities of geneticaly modified crops. The recent turmoil about BT Brinjal is a direct result of the this treaty. After BT-Brinjal, other BT crops like BT rice are in the pipeline. This will be discussed in detail later.

Not only produce, genetic engineering is going to be used in changing fish and poultry as well. Along with this the issue of patents is also going to be highlighted. This is how the Company Raj is going to be imposed on the farmers of India. The induction of genetically modified crops will drastically reduce seed diversity and the farming of conventional crops. Farming will become so expensive that farmers will be forced to give up their occupations. Apart from permanently taking away the control of seeds from farmers, the special "Biotechnology Regulatory Act" is being formulated so that any sort of protest will also be stifled. This is how the freedom of speech and democratic rights will be usurped.

b) US multi-multinationals will sponsor the training of different Indian agricultural researchers in their own country. This is how foreign companies will develop and control the Indian agricultural research system. Needless to say, this cost will be borne by the Indian government. The BT Brinjal scam exposed clearly how it is possible to have reports favorable to multinationals penned by a few researchers, and how government permission obtained by completely illegal means.
 
c) The syllabus of the agricultural universities of India will be restructured. The curriculum of different institutions will be made favourable for the second green revolution. As a result of this pact, US corporations and universities will be getting the permission of taking seeds from India to their own country. They can then genetically modify these seeds and re-introduce them in India, as new, patented seeds.
 
d) One main aspect of this is contract farming. There are many examples of this in Punjab, Haryana and Andhra Pradesh. These will then rapidly spread to the other parts of the country following the declaration of the second green revolution. Futures trade would be based on this, and farmers will completely lose control over crop selection in the future. All such selection will be determined by the market, which will mainly promote the growth of food crops that can be exported and processed. This will be the future of the agricultural policy.

AKI board:

The high powered joint committee created for the implementation of Indo-US pact is represented prominently by Walmart, which is the world's number one retailer, Archers Daniel Midlands which is the world's largest food trader, and biochemical, seed and biotech giant Monsanto corporation which unilaterally control the seed market. Recently, in India FICCI and CII have joined this advisory committee.

Indo US CEO forum:
      
In his US visit of the US in 2005 by Manmohan Singh, the Indo-US CEO forum was formed under the supervision of the US-India business council. The primary objective of this forum was to supervise US investment in India and create conditions which would allow unfettered access for foreign capital. In reality, this group will try to implement all economic policies and ideas of the AKI pact. RatanTata has been designated the CEO from the Indian side, and William Harrison of JP Morgan as the CEO from the American side. Besides these, US board members are drawn from Cargill, Citigroup, Pepsico, McGrawHill, Xerox, while India is represented by Pratap Reddy of Apollo Hospital, Baba Kalyani of IndianForge Ltd, Ashok Ganguly of ICICI, Mukesh Ambani of Reliance, Yogi Deveshwar of ITC LTD, Deepak Parekh of ICDFC, to name a few. It is the proposal created by this group of corporates which was finally accepted in the parliament.

It is worth mentioning that many of these committee members were directly and indirectly connected to biotech research and agricultural retail croporations like Kishan Sansar of the Tata's and Reliance Fresh of the Ambani's. Besides, US companies that are closely affiliated are taking advantage of the treaty through the export market and are also changing the laws of the country for promoting their own interests. It is notable that the traveling companions of Manmohan Singh in 2005 were Ratan Tata, Mukesh Ambani, Baba Kalyani, Y.C.Deveshwar, Deepak Parekh, etc. In one word, the promotion and individual growth of of particular large business and trade interests is being protrayed as the way to help in development of the nation.

Documents of the CEO forum: Tactical Economic Partnership of India and US:

In 2006, the CEO forum published an agenda, which in one word could be said to be the list of demands of the corporate houses. These demands are reflected in the many so called development projects and have different legal aspects.

Starting from infrastructure, and encompassing energy security, different sectors like trade and business intellectual property rights, direct foreign investment, insurance / banking / pension, SEZ, defense, special investment areas, agriculture, and even several aspects of the Indian legal system have been earmarked for "cooperation" within the document published by the CEO forum. In brief, let us try to look at the main points in the document.

1. Public-private partnership (PPP) needs to be encouraged. The Indian government will need to increase the transparency and efficiency of the bidding process in order to attract more US-based corporations. The legal system in India will need to be modified to protect the interests of foreign investors.

2. Large Special Economic Zones (SEZ's) will need to be set up in India, which will service both the domestic and foreign markets. These zones will have international standard infrastructure, developmental projects, energy and transporation advantages, single window of clearance, internationally competitive labour laws and administrative transparency. A task force comprising of various Indian and foreign industry representatives will coordinate with state and national governing bodies / agencies.

3. Foreign corporations are very interested in investing in electricity, petroleum, gas, etc. therefore the govt. should enact more aggressive reforms in these areas, and give special attention to investment.

4. In the way the US based firm Enron was facilitated to invest in the "Dabhol Electricity Project", similarly Dow Chemicals should be allowed into Union Carbide in Bhopal, and all obstacles for such investment should be removed. The restrictions placed on the price of medication by Dr. Pranab Sen's task force need to be reviewed. The government needs to take up the task of building infrastructure. Public-private partnerships need to be welcomed in the fields of investment, all of which could be joint Indo-US ventures.

5. Barriers in investing in the small scale retail market need to be removed. Similarly, hindrances in investment in real estate, media, satellite broadcasts should be reduced. The food processing industry should be opened up to foreign investment, and special investment zones (different from special economic zones) need to be opened up to to attract foreigh investment. These places would have lax labour laws.

6. The CEO forum has emphasized on control over higher education and research in the context of human resource development. They have advocated the establishment of ties with different Indian and American universities and have demanded complete independence in the determination of fees and syllabuses for the affiliated universities. It has been clearly mentioned that the AKI treaty will be specially used in the field of collaborative research between Indian and US universities.

7. The food processing industry will need to be completely privatised. To rejuvenate the food processing industry, a cold storage chain needs to be established. All obstacles in the transport of imported and internal agricultural produce need to be removed. The Agricultural Produce Market Committee regulation needs to be revisited as this poses an obstacle for buyers and food processors for investing and increases the costs of agricultural goods. The import and taxation policies on vegetable oil, oil producing seeds, agricultural produce, need to be relaxed and all barriers to foreign investment in food and agri-business needs to be removed.

8. An US-India agricultural research institute needs to be set up as a part of the AKI pact, and joint research will need to be encouraged. The US and India should jointly try to commercialise biotechnology and encourage in the investment of products and goods that are generated from biotechnology. The appropriate framework for this needs to be created.

9. Direct foreign investment needs to be accelerated. Barriers to retail trade will need to be loosened. Besides, real estate, media, broadcasting, cable TV, etc should have any investment limits removed. Insurance/banking regulations need to be relaxed.

Only selected parts of the document of the CEO forum are discussed here. As the main thrust of this is agriculture, many changes are coming in this sector. These are reforms according to the government, but are in reality a blueprint for corporate takeover.

Like the establishment of SEZ's, food grain export, food processing, the entrance of large capital in retail industry, changes in the APMC law, changes in policies related to education and research, were mentioned to the show the connection between the corporate interests in the two countries. On the Indian side, the signatory was Ratan Tata. In this context it should be mentioned that the golden quadrilateral that came up during the nineties, and the way the rail and land corridors and shopping malls are sprouting up, are all parts of the new agricultural policy. Needless to say this will result in increased food shortages, malnutrition, widespread poverty and starvation.

First Green Revolution versus the Second Green Revolution:

In the 60s a change had been noticed in the agricultural policy that had been termed the first green revolution. A joint venture of the Ford Foundation of Henry Ford, and the Rockefeller Foundation of Standard Oil had made the world's agricultural system more dependent on energy and mineral oil. This was an indivisible part of the strategy of making the world more dependent on petroleum. Behind this "green revolution" there were other motives than just improving the Indian agricultural output. The fulfillment of the self-interest of the US was much greater, especially the fulfillment of the plans of the oil companies who wanted to create a permanent market for themselves through this process. The aim of the first revolution was to introduce petrochemical dependency on farming and make inroads in the fields of ownership of seed distribution, take control over the sectors of pesticides, herbicides, fertilisers, etc.

The initiative to start the first green revolution had begun in Mexico in 1943. At that time, due to the initiative taken by the US based Rockefeller foundation, a joint effort by the US agricultural ministry and the USDA established the wheat and corn research center CMMYIT. Following this, the International Rice Research Center was established in the Philippines. The Rockefeller Foundation and the Ford Foundation were also involved in this effort. Among their different objectives, one was to create hybrid seed varieties that would grow well on nitrogen based fertilisers. The IR-8 variety was created by hybridising PETA of Indonesia with Dee-gee Woo Gen of China. After that, several such research efforts have taken place. This was the first attempt to establish private control over the seed sector.

After the WW II, the spectre of communism chased the US all over the world. In their own country, the US established a military economy by striking a deal with labour unions for setting labour policies. If revolutionary movements were afoot in any country, the US would try to identify the roots. There was a specific economic objective to this. And in these efforts, CIA was called in if needed to implement the policies of the World Bank and the IMF.

Even in the areas of improvement of irrigation in Mexico and in the creation of high yielding varieties in Philippines, Indonesia, China, the green revolution was made a model of agricultural growth. At the initiative and due to the funding by the Ford Foundation, the Corn Development project (CDP) gave impetus to the agriculture in this country. After that, the Intensive Agricultural District Region (IADR) was started in the states of Punjab, Haryana, and in some provinces of North-Western UP from 1965.

In this context, it should be mentioned that the way the rich ruling class of this country tried to use the technology and resources of both Russia and the Western nations simultaneously. Due to this, there was some hesitation in accepting the green revolution. Hearsay said that after the US president Lyndon Johnson threatened to withdraw PL-480, the ruling class conceded to implement the required policies to facilitate the first green revolution.

The green revolution entered India by exploiting the food crisis. When a nationwide food crisis was going on in the country in the beginning of the 60's, the green revolution package entered the country through the medium of export reform. Firstly, India was told that a nationwide survey of soil fertility needed to be conducted. The sale of farming equipment in India heralded the use of expensive machinery in Indian agriculture. Also, technology related to chemical fertilizer production was made sophisticated at this time. This was followed by the induction of high yielding seed varieties. Punjab was chosen as the incubation center for the green revolution. Along with the revolution, diesel pump-sets came into India. All of this was tied to the selfish profit motives of the Rockefeller and the Ford Foundations. These technologies were not introduced to alleviate India's hunger.

In order to turn the popular tide of public opinion towards the green revolution, a large scale effort was undertaken to train the scientists who would support it. The US undertook the responsibility of establishing an agricultural university in Punjab. After that, such universities were established in different places like Hyderabad, Tamil Nadu.

Correspondingly, US universities were deputed to prepare the curriculum. It was decided that the agricultural universities in this country would be modeled after the Land Grant based university model of US. In this period, around 33 institutes came to be, including 25 state farming universities, 1 central agricultural university, 1 horticultural and forestry related university, 2 veterinary universities, to list a few. 4 national research centers were also created.

By directly becoming involved in the establishment of 5 universities of the first phase, US established roots in the Indian agricultural education and training arena. National universities had very close associations with US based universities, which often influenced their policy decisions. Examples of such collaborations were the involvements of the Ohio University in Punjab, Michigan University in Tamil Nadu, Purdue, Iowa university in Bangalore.

This is how the green revolution established itself in India. This same idea was applied in other countries.

Tales of increased yield from the green revolution were circulated. Starting from the school textbooks, people were brainwashed on the positive effects of the green revolution. But nowhere were its negative aspects mentioned. While statistics of increased yield were presented, the price for this yield increase was not mentioned. There were three main subjects of the green revolution.

1. Increase in amount of land under agriculture.
2. Fertile lands were directed to have double crops and increased irrigation.
3. Increased use of high yielding variety seeds.

It is not clear why on earth one would need the great opinions of American experts regarding the first two abovementioned steps. There was no need for the eminent experts to tell us that more grain can be produced by cultivating more land which would help in building up the farming system of the country. Second, neither is there any doubt that production would rise if two crops are grown instead of one. The third advice was for securing their hold in seed market. This raised per acre yield undoubtedly. But one also has to consider that cost of production has gone up in the same rate. There is no efficiency gain in obtaining more power by spending more power.

In newly independent countries like India where the bourgeoisie rules, the "green revolution" was accorded the status of national agricultural policy. In order to protect from the danger of second world war and world wide economic depression, the interest of the saviour of world capitalism, namely the United States, and that of the Indian bourgeoisie converged on the same point.

In the agricultural system of colonial age the government was not concerned about the food availability of common people. Without attaining any development in agriculture many exportable crops such as jute, coffee, tobacco, cotton were grown. In the interest of imperialism through permanent settlement, zamindari, mahalwari, ryotwari tenure systems capitalist production were carried on. The main aim of the British government was to collect taxes, to that end it compromised with the local feudal structure.

Immediately after independence therefore food crisis, problems of all around rural development cropped up along with problems of expansion of capitalism in agriculture. The reason why the Indian capitalist class interest started following the blue print prepared by the two American organisations, Rockfeller and Ford Foundation are as follows,

1.In the newly independent country the torch bearer of democracy, the Congress Party, followed a system of mixed economy to achieve welfare for all. But while doing so crisis on food front became the biggest issue. To reach food to industrial workers and ordinary citizens control should be exercised over supply of food and its price. Therefore, the central government adopted green revolution oriented agricultural policy to quell possibilities of imminent rebellion and insurrections.

2.Some investments were legitimately taking place in agriculture. A major part of the compensation paid to the princely states also got invested in industries and share market. But in spite of all this the capitalist structure in agriculture was not taking a robust shape because of elements of semi-feudalism, slavery, begar system (bonded labour system in agriculture). So land reform, technology oriented farming, high yielding variety seeds, expansion of irrigation and such measures were taken.

3.Western influences were leaving deep imprint on the thinking, practice, values (especially in the field of technology) in the middle and upper class for decades before independence was attained. In the newly independent country that western influence, mainly in technology, became US oriented within a decade.

On the other hand as far as the harmful effects of green revolution are concerned the first is stability. The yield per acre could not be sustained. Two, countries which had adopted this technology are importing food at present. Possibly the global food merchants had this aim in mind. Three, hunger of the poor has not gone down, it has risen on the contrary. Serious harms were done to ecology. The farmers are finding farming no longer profitable courtesy adoption of the expensive farming system. Besides the well off farmers, conditions of small and marginal peasants have deteriorated (92% of peasants in West Bengal are small and marginal). Most importantly, the government itself is admitting that the first green revolution technology has lost efficiency. The edge has worn out in ten years. On can go on over this, but let us stop here for the time being.

India Produces:

17% of world milk production, 41% of mango, 30% of cauliflower, 24% of cashewnut, 36% of green peas, 21% of sugar cane, 22% of rice, 21% of pulses, 15% of wheat, 28% of tea. Besides, there are fruits, herbs etc.

Farmer Suicide:

No matter how loud the leaders blow their trumpets over agricultural development, incidence of farmer suicide has been growing. Existence of crores of marginal and small farmers are at risk due to the attack of neoliberal economic policies. National Crime Records Bureau reports that between 1997 and 2008 1,99,132 farmers were forced to commit suicide. Five states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh contributed the most to this. Mumbai, the capital city of Maharashtra, is supposed to be the life centre of financial activities in India. The same state saw about 45000 farmer suicides. In 2008 alone Maharashtra clocked 436 and Karnataka 398 farmers suicides. In the five years 2003 to 2008 incidence of suicides has gone up by 1900 per year.

The Punjab Experience:

It is heard that Punjab has prospered a lot due to the first green revolution and the lives and livelihood of the farmers in Punjab have improved. After this propaganda the central government is preparing the grounds for the second green revolution. But what is the actual state of Punjab peasants? Of all states, the highest number of indebted farmers is in Punjab. The average level of indebtedness per agriculturist is about Rs 42000. The volume of total indebtedness is Rs 25000 crores. From 1998 to 2009, 2116 farmers have committed suicide in this state. According to non-official sources the actual number is several times more than this. About 60% of farmers are in debt. The price of the first green revolution by is being paid by small and middle peasants committing suicide. The finance minister of India Mr. Pranab Mukherjee has chosen the eastern states such as West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa for unveiling the second green revolution. In this manner, the central government has arranged for mass scale farmer suicide in these states in near future.

Due to land reforms, small and marginal farmers own most of the land in West Bengal. They have succeeded in achieving all round improvement of agriculture in the state. West Bengal is one of the major states in agricultural production. One of the sinister aims of neoliberal globalisation is to establish the dominance of capital in agricultural business. Many infamous multinational companies and capitalists of this country have entered the fray to secure their business power in agriculture. These businessmen are eager to put into practice a capital and technology intensive agricultural system. If they are successful the small and marginal farmers will either be thrown off their occupation and turn into farm labourers. Or they will choose the final option of suicide through the debt route.

It is well known that the aim of many national and international big capitalists is to grab large tracts of land, invest huge sums of money and modern technology and earn windfall profit in the agricultural business. To achieve this the first task would be to reverse whatever little land reform that has taken place. As it is, per capita land ownership is less in eastern India. After the land reform in West Bengal per family land ownership has gone down further. One of the aims of the second green revolution is to nullify the land reform system and establish the unchallenged dominance of big capitalists in place of the big landlords of yesteryears.

We must fend off this ominous future.

The Main Theme of the Second Green Revolution:

The first green revolution has failed, therefore more green revolution. We have already noted that the impact of the second wave is going to be much more lethal. The first revolution targeted capturing the market of farm implements or exporting agricultural produce after growing them domestically. The new revolution one hears is not restricted to sphere of production alone. From primary implements to the final distribution of the produce – the entire network is attempted to be swallowed up. In the first stage ordinary people could manage to benefit in a limited way through public distribution system, agriculture subsidy, internal market, procurement at remunerative price etc. There were flaws in all these. But the attack in the second stage is much more far reaching.

The main technological weapon in the second green revolution is biotechnology. Monsanto wants to exercise control over the entire seed stock of the world through this. Not only seeds the multinational corporations are keen to control over the entire animal kingdom. In cattle and fish production gene technology is already being used extensively. The multinational corporations have gained dominance over scientific research of all description. They are using scientific and technological research according to their own will and requirements. India has become part of their nefarious plan through many deals.

Genetically Modified Crop: The Main Weapon of the Second Green Revolution
BT cotton and BT brinjal: Ominous Project

If HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers, pesticides were the tools through which via the first green revolution agrarian economy of India and the third world were captured, the principal weapon of the so called second green revolution or forever green revolution is GMO or Genetically Modified Organisms. It includes cotton, potato, maize, rice, jawar, soya bean, canola, tomato, papaya and BT brinjal, the centre of the latest controversy. Gradually newer commercial crops, food grains, vegetables would be encompassed.

From the last decade of the last century a process of merger between the giant chemical companies, farm and seed monopolies started. For instance pioneer Hybreed and Dupont (1997), Novartis AG and Geneca (2002), Dow and Rohm and Has (2001) etc. These agglomerated giants started to monopolise the seed market, so that the third world farmers are not able to preserve seed, so that each year they get forced to buy seeds from Monsanto, Singenta, Dupont or Cargill at extortionary price, so that all over the world seed and crop market get monopolised by monopoly capital.

The first step in this direction is to biotechnologically modify one or two genes of crops so that the gene of a different organism gets established.

The second step, to relentlessly propagate that GM crop is more productive, pest resistant and has greater longevity. Less chemical fertilisers would needed, less harvest will get wasted – profits of the farmer would rise as a result. 90% of such propaganda is false, incomplete or based on unscientific research and lies. But agricultural scientists and researches of India would be used for the propaganda – with the help of foreign tours (in the name of training), research funding and gifts. The universities of India and the third world would be utilised for the same purpose.

In the third state, the government would be pressured to approve those untested and harmful side effects containing seeds so that they can be produced commercially for the domestic market. If need be at first the seeds would be distributed freely and they would reach the farmers through the government agricultural departments. This has happened in the case of BT cotton and attempts are being made for the same in case of BT brinjal. If things don't work out simply extremely undemocratic and anti-national laws such as 'Biotechnology Bill' would be passed through the client governments.

The fourth stage is catastrophic. Within five, ten or fifteen years natural genome of all crops will get polluted through cross-pollination of infused outside genes. For example Cry 1ac gene of soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis has been infused in BT brinjal. This gene will enter the 25 varieties of brinjal in India and also other crops. Biodiversity created over thousands of years will get destroyed. It is worthwhile to recall that 2000 varieties of paddy have vanished because of the first green revolution. After 20 years perhaps only GM potato, maize and rice will be left with us.

The main game of giant companies unfolds in the fifth stage. Local seed stock has been destroyed. Only the distorted seeds of Monsanto, Syngenta are all we are left with. Farmers will have to purchase these year after year at a premium. Otherwise farmers may go to the jail or get fined courtesy patent law or the Seed Act, which is pending parliamentary approval.

The field where BT or similar crops have been cultivated get unsuitable for crops which are not genetically modified. This way the entire seed market of the country will be usurped by multinational giants or their national agent organisations.

However these high price seeds can not guarantee high crop yield. There is no certainty that the gene injected inside another crop by biotechnology, will succeed in yielding large harvest. Cotton growing areas of Vidharbha of Maharashtra is a cataclysmic example. We have discussed this elsewhere in this booklet. In short, after buying seeds and farm implements at exorbitant price, experiencing crop failure and therefore unable to pay the bank of money lender loans, thousands of BT cotton farmers have committed suicide. The suicide count exceeded 4000 in 2005-06 alone.

After soaking their hands in the blood of peasants, after doing business of billions of rupees, Monsanto (father of BT cotton) is now saying perhaps one of their GM seeds, 'Bollgard- I', has been a failure. Pests have become immune. Use of pesticide has not come down, neither has the yield gone up they admit. Therefore the company advices that their newest invention, two gene modified 'Bollgard -II' seed should be used. Massive success follow.

The false admit of error by Monsanto is part of their global business strategy. After the profit of the first stage seed has been completely appropriated they want to push the more expensive Bollgard – II. Transforming the blood and flesh of Indian peasants into profit is the blueprint of these multinational corporations.

Thus GM crops are an indispensable part of the second green revolution and India-US agricultural knowledge initiative. It's a such sure shot ammunition to secure all-encompassing of monopoly capital over Indian agriculture.

At present the much publicised story of high productivity yielding green revolution has taken an U-turn. Fertility of soil has plummeted. Ground water level has gone down alarmingly. Many toxic and poisonous particles are being detected in water. Due to relentless and extensive application of chemical manures and inorganic pesticides rural ecology and even the forests have been damaged.

The favourite projects of the central government such as the special economic zone (SEZ), due to large scale land grab by the big capitalists in search of minerals, the supply of land available for farming has gone down significantly. Besides, in spite of many cautions the central government has refused to restore the universal rationing system. It has instead embarked on a bizarre plan to provide food grain to the poor by introducing food coupon system. All these is part of a deep treacherous behaviour pattern.

After forward trading has been given permission big capitalists have taken to hoarding of food grain and black marketing. The Vajpayee government has weakened the essential commodities act. Manmohan Singh is walking the same path. As a result, punitive actions against black marketers and hoarders have become difficult to slap. Distribution of ration cards and correctly fixing the poverty line in the states are not being executed. The poor irrespective of caste, religion or creed are unable to afford food grain. Food crisis has grown deeper and deeper.

We have already discussed that an agricultural system oriented towards open market economy is fast gaining ground. The fallout of this is that food grains would not be grown for feeding the hungry, but the main aim of the farming would be to establish commercial agriculture. Agricultural diversity is getting destroyed. Agricultural production is becoming inconsistent with the rising population growth of the country. One shudders to think what danger food crisis may portend in near future.

It has to be pointed out, all over the world food crisis is taking an increasingly dangerous dimension. As the crisis deepens, demand for food rises exponentially. Consequently, the countries which are rich in agriculture, those which grow gold from land, face the gravest dangers from ruthless land grabbing predators.

Food is for People, It is a Right, It is not for Profit:

Demands:

1.Seeds and right to preserve seeds cannot be snatched away from peasants.
2.Invasion of national or international big capital in agriculture and contract farming should not be allowed.
3.So called food coupon based distorted food security system cannot be allowed.
4.Universal rationing system should be implemented throughout the country.
5.Black marketing and hoarding should be stopped by making essential commodities act strict.
6.Forwarding trading of food grain should be banned.
7.Excessive water, high level chemical fertiliser and pesticide based agriculture system must stop.
8.Privatisation of distribution of water and irrigation should be stopped.
9.In the interest of the poor land reform should be implemented throughout the country.
10.Land cannot be taken under the dictates of big capital.
11.Not under the control of capital, the local agricultural society must be intensely involved in order to restructure procurement and distribution of crop.
12. All genetically modified seed based crops including BT cotton and brinjal should be banned.
13.Indo-US agricultural knowledge initiative must be scrapped.

The deepening crisis in agricultural production and distribution is entangling the entire nation in an unprecedented crisis. To fight against this vicious present and future all progressive people, those who are committed to the cause of humanity must come together. One cannot afford to be too discerning regarding the allies, that way no meaningful resistance against the despicable conspiracy can be forged. Consolidation of the largest number of people and a commitment towards an united struggle is the need of the hour.

At the present juncture one needs development of consciousness and propagation of the same to thwart the conspiracy of the Indian capitalist who acting as junior partners of imperialist powers. Sanskriti Parishad in involved in this task. We believe in the coming days booklets of this nature would be published on a bigger scale by ensuring participation of larger number of people.

10 Responses to "The Second Green Revolution: A Blue-Print to Control India's Agriculture - Indo-US Treaty, New Seed Act"

  1. Jyotsna Kapur Says: 
    August 29th, 2010 at 2:08 am

    Thank you. Very informative.

  2. pradip kar Says: 
    August 30th, 2010 at 6:16 am

    It is very much helpful to the readers

  3. Sayantani Says: 
    September 13th, 2010 at 7:14 am

    Thanks for making people aware of the SGR

  4. nil Says: 
    September 15th, 2010 at 2:31 am

    i need bangala version of this book.
    please organize a rally & come at street against
    SRG , 123 , nuclear liability bill.

  5. nil Says: 
    September 15th, 2010 at 2:34 am

    sorry , at above comments ,that is SGR, NOT SRG.

  6. arnab Says: 
    September 16th, 2010 at 2:43 am

    we have to combat so called evergreen revolution to save our soil,seed,knowledge and people

  7. Shilpa.S.L Says: 
    November 10th, 2010 at 2:20 am

    Nature has provided us for the needful requirement, but not for the greedy.

  8. Rati kanta naik ,ag student Says: 
    January 14th, 2011 at 1:52 am

    The sgr information has described vert effectively,thans fr giving valuable information.

  9. Rati kanta naik ,ag student Says: 
    January 14th, 2011 at 1:53 am

    thnks fr giving the valuable information.

  10. Kumaraswamy.K Says: 
    March 2nd, 2011 at 8:11 pm

    The article gives multi-directional view of Second/Sustainable/Ever Green Revolution,

    http://sanhati.com/excerpted/2698/


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    Green Revolution in India

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Part of a series on the
    History of Modern India
    Emblem of India.svg
    Pre-Independence British Raj Red Ensign.svg
    British Raj (1858–1947)
    Indian independence movement (1857–1947)
    Partition of India (1947)
    Post-Independence Flag of India.svg
    Political integration of India (1947–49)
    Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
    States Reorganisation Act (1956)
    Non-Aligned Movement (1956– )
    Sino-Indian War (1962)
    Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
    Green Revolution (1970s)
    Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
    Emergency (1975–77)
    Siachen conflict (1984)
    1990s in India
    Economic liberalisation in India
    Kargil War (1999)
    2000s in India
    See also
    History of India
    History of South Asia
    This box: view · talk · edit

    The introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds after 1965 and the increased use offertilizers and irrigation are known collectively as the Green Revolution, which provided the increase in production needed to make India self-sufficient in food grains, thus improvingagriculture in IndiaFamine in India, once accepted as inevitable, has not returned since the introduction of Green Revolution crops.

    Of the high-yielding seeds, wheat produced the best results. All India Radio (AIR) played a vital role in creating awareness for these methods. Along with high yielding seeds and irrigation facilities, the enthusiasm of farmers mobilized the idea of agricultural revolution and is also credited to All India Radio.

    Contents

     [hide]

    [edit]Results

    The major benefits of the Green Revolution were experienced mainly in northern and northwestern India between 1965 and the early 1980s; the program resulted in a substantial increase in the production of food grains, mainly wheat and rice[citation needed]. Food-grain yields continued to increase throughout the 1980s, but the dramatic changes in the years between 1965 and 1980 were not duplicated. By FY 1980, almost 75 percent of the total cropped area under wheat was sown with high-yielding varieties. For rice the comparable figure was 45 percent. In the 1980s, the area under high-yielding varieties continued to increase, but the rate of growth overall was slower. The eighth plan aimed at making high-yielding varieties available to the whole country and developing more productive strains of other crops[citation needed].


    In 2006, Dr Norman Borlaug, widely known as the 'Father of India's Green Revolution', was presented India's second highest civilian honour, the Padma Vibhushan, by India's ambassador in Mexico City.[1][2]

    [edit]Environmental impact

    The environmental impact of excessive use to chemical fertilizers and pesticides was only revealed as years passed by. In 2009, under a Greenpeace Research Laboratories investigation, Dr Reyes Tirado, from the University of Exeter, UK, conducted a study in 50 villages in MuktsarBathinda and Ludhiana districts that revealed chemical, radiation and biological toxicity was rampant in Punjab. 20% of the sampled wells showed nitrate levels above the safety limit of 50 mg/l, established byWHO. The study connected this finding with high use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers.[3] With increasing poisoning of the soil, the region once hailed as the home to the Green Revolution, now due to excessive use of chemical fertilizer, is being termed by one columnist as the "OtherBhopal".[4] For example, Buddha Nullah, a rivulet which run through Malwa region of Punjab, India, and after passing through highly populatedLudhiana district, before draining into Sutlej River, a tributary of the Indus river, is today an important case point in the recent studies, which suggest this as another Bhopal in making.[5] A joint study by PGIMER and Punjab Pollution Control Board in 2008, revealed that in villages along the Nullah, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, mercury, beta-endosulphan and heptachlor pesticide were more than permissible limit (MPL) in ground and tap waters. Plus the water had high concentration of COD and BOD (chemical and biochemical oxygen demand), ammonia, phosphate, chloride, chromium, arsenic and chlorpyrifos pesticide. The ground water also contains nickel and selenium, while the tap water has high concentration of lead, nickel and cadmium.[6]

    In addition to large inputs of fertilizers and pesticides, the Green Revolution in India was made possible in large part by a dramatic increase in irrigation, particularly from deep groundwater sources. The exploitation of groundwater resources allowed farmers to double-crop (grow crops even during the dry season) and to grow water-intensive crops such as rice in areas that were traditionally unsuited for rice production. [7]

    This growth in irrigation has led to an alarming drop in the water table in a number of key agricultural Indian states, such as Punjab, where the water table is reportedly falling by about 1 meter per year. In other states, the problem is worse; in Gujarat, the water table is falling by as much as 3-5 meters per year.[8] [9]

    What this means is that without a dramatic change in agricultural practice, groundwater resources could be depleted within a few years. [10]In the case of Gujarat and other coastal areas, intrusion of seawater could render underground aquifers useless for human consumption or agriculture. [11]

    [edit]References

    [edit]See also

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SALEM - Anti-pesticide activists brought more than complaints to a state Board of Forestry meeting on Friday afternoon. The Triangle Lake residents, who for years have been lobbying and agitating against aerial sprays of herbicides on ...

Operation SAFE Aerial Aviators Demonstrate Skills

Military & Aerospace Electronics - ‎9 hours ago‎

The event provides a hands-on opportunity to address any questions related to pesticideuse regulations before the upcoming season.

Farmers under the scanner for use of pesticide

Times of India - Nandhu Sundaram - ‎Apr 27, 2011‎

Experts say that there is no control over the amount of pesticide sprayed on fruits, including grapes. Consumers and non-government organisations should come together to create awareness about the indiscriminate use of pesticides on fruits.

Anti-beetle pesticide accepted, questioned

Jamaica Plain Gazette - Rebeca Oliveira - ‎22 hours ago‎

The Arnold Arboretum, the largest affected property owner, has chosen pesticide soil injections in addition to trunk injections on its trees.

Follow the Evidence and Save the Frogs

Natural Resources Defense Council (blog) - ‎5 hours ago‎

In Tuesday's Huffington Post Jon Entine, a visiting fellow with the conservative American Enterprise Institute, attacks the link between the decline of frogs globally and pesticideuse. As Jon rightly notes, worldwide the biggest problem facing frogs ...

VIDEO: Environmentalists Call On EPA To Ban Pesticide Talk Radio News Service

"Save the Frogs" campaign: Follow the money to an anti-pesticide ruse American Council on Science and Health

Mongabay.com - Scoop.co.nz (press release)

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Kerala shops, services shut to demand pesticide ban

GulfNews - ‎22 hours ago‎

However, none of the other political parties expressed disagreement with the move to oppose the continued permission given by the federal government to use the lethalpesticide. In northern Kerala, particularly in Kasaragode district, ...

Award-winning Training on Pesticide Safety is Newly Updated

FireEngineering.com - ‎Apr 29, 2011‎

"Pesticides" combines realistic training scenarios with exciting historic footage of apesticide incident that poisoned more than 50 miles of the Rhine River.

Pesticide residue report raises red flag in produce industry

TheProduceNews.com - Joan Murphy - ‎Apr 29, 2011‎

WASHINGTON - The yearly release of pesticide residue data from the US Department of Agriculture should be framed in a way not to discourage people from consuming fresh produce, 18 produce trade groups wrote Agriculture ...

Grower groups ask USDA to underscore safety of regulatory system in pesticide ...AgraNet (subscription)

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Green groups: Dispose of endosulfan now

Manila Bulletin - De Vera - ‎9 hours ago‎

MANILA, Philippines - As the international community imposes a global ban on the endosulfan, a "highly hazardous pesticide" used on food and non-food crops, green groups appealed to the Aquino administration to speed up the safe ...

EPA urged to consider aldicarb re-registration

Southeast Farm Press - Georgia Farm Bureau - ‎Apr 29, 2011‎

• Aldicarb is the active ingredient in the Bayer CropScience product sold as Temik, a granular pesticide used below the surface of the soil to control a variety of pests.

The Hindu

Kerala CM writes to counterparts on Endosulfan

indiablooms - ‎Apr 28, 2011‎

Thiruvananthapuram, Apr 28 (IBNS) Kerala Chief Minister VS Achuthanandan on Thursday said he has written to his counterparts in other states to support him on nationwide ban on Endosulfan pesticideand Central assistance for victims of the particular ...

BAN ENDOSULFAN pharmabiz.com

Sangh Parivar stands divided on 'swadeshi' endosulfan Indian Express

Daily Pioneer - Deccan Herald - Commodity Online - The Hindu

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Commentary: Science, not fear, should guide pesticide debate

Victoria Times Colonist - Bill Stavdal - ‎Apr 27, 2011‎

What are we to make of the pesticide debate? We see products studied and approved by the federal and provincial governments for manufacture, distribution and use.

UPDATED: Wish Farms rolls out pesticide residue-free blueberries

The Packer - Andy Nelson - ‎Apr 28, 2011‎

(UPDATED COVERAGE, April 28) A Florida grower-shipper is marketing pesticideresidue-free blueberries at a price comparable to conventional blueberries.

Wish Farms Announces Pesticide Residue-Free Blueberries San Francisco Chronicle (press release)

Pesticide residue-free blueberries coming Dalje.com

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BJP demands ban on endosulfan

Indian Express - ‎Apr 27, 2011‎

The BJP said on Wednesday that the party favours a nation-wide ban on the pesticide, endosulfan. "BJP is with the people who are suffering due to the ill-effects of the pesticidein Kasaragod district," senior BJP leader and Leader of Opposition in Lok ...

Sushma Swaraj backs endosulfan ban Newstrack India

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BJP demands ban on endosulfan

Expressindia.com - ‎Apr 28, 2011‎

Thiruvanathapuram The BJP said on Wednesday that the party favours a nation-wide ban on the pesticide, endosulfan. "BJP is with the people who are suffering due to the ill-effects of the pesticide in Kasaragod district," senior BJP leader and Leader of ...

Business Standard

<B>Q&A:</B> Oommen Chandy, former CM of Kerala

Business Standard - ‎2 hours ago‎

Opposition leader and former chief minister of Kerala, Oommen Chandy, tells Joe C Mathew the ruling Communists-led front has no moral right to fight for a ban on controversial pesticide Endosulfan. Hardly two weeks after the state elections, ...

Industry seeks USDA support with pesticide residue report

The Packer - Tom Karst - ‎Apr 28, 2011‎

The leaders of more than a dozen produce associations have asked Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack to do everything he can to prevent mischaracterization of pesticide residue data from the USDA's upcoming release of the annual Pesticide ...

Scorpion venom-injected pesticide could protect plants from bugs!

Newstrack India - ‎Apr 28, 2011‎

Washington, Apr 28 (ANI): Scientists have uncovered new ways to use scorpion venom to protect plants from bugs. Past research identified scorpion toxin's usefulness in the development of insecticides.

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The selection and placement of stories on this pa

Geneva meet bans endosulfan

Deccan Herald - ‎21 hours ago‎

The conference took the decision based on the risk profile and risk management for endosulfan done by the Persistent Organic Pollutant Review Committee. The ban, which will cover technical endosulfan, its related isomers and endosulfan sulphate, ...

Video: 'What endosulfan did to me' NDTV.com

Kerala politics forced UPA to take stand against Endosulfan Business Standard

Zee News - Economic Times - indiablooms - The Hindu

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Green groups: Dispose of endosulfan now

Manila Bulletin - De Vera - ‎9 hours ago‎

The fifth Conference of Parties (COP5) of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), which ended last Friday, agreed to include endosulfan in Annex A of the treaty for global elimination, subject to specific exemptions.

Pollutants Banned, But With Exceptions

Inter Press Service (press release) - ‎Apr 29, 2011‎

GENEVA, Apr 28, 2011 (IPS) - The fifth conference of the 173 parties to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, Apr. 25-29, could bring to 22 the total number of internationally agreed forbidden pollutants.

Travel Hazards: Two Studies Start To Map Pollutant Threats To Turtles

Pollution Online (press release) - ‎Apr 28, 2011‎

In a pair of studies—one recently published online* and the other soon-to-be published**— researchers at the Hollings Marine Laboratory (HML), a government-university collaboration in Charleston, SC, report that persistent organic pollutants (POPs ...

Pollutants Banned, But With Exceptions

Inter Press Service - Isolda Agazzi - ‎Apr 28, 2011‎

GENEVA, Apr 28, 2011 (IPS) - The fifth conference of the 173 parties to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, Apr. 25-29, could bring to 22 the total number of internationally agreed forbidden pollutants.

Africans Tell the UN to Buzz Off The American

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The Hindu

Stockholm convention: India makes moves against ban on endosulfan

The Hindu - Roy Mathew - ‎Apr 25, 2011‎

The Persistent Organic Pollutant Review Committee of the Convention, which met in Geneva in October last year, had recommended adding endosulfan to Annex A of the Convention which means a global ban on the pesticide that caused the death of hundreds of ...

Video: Pesticide row: Kerala CM blames Centre Times Now

Move to name Endosulfan as POP lacks scientific basis: India MSN India

Business Standard - Deccan Herald - Economic Times -CounterCurrents.org

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Study reveals dangerous chemicals in foam carpet pads

News-Medical.net - ‎Apr 28, 2011‎

POPs is an acronym for Persistent Organic Pollutants, the most dangerous chemicals in the world. IPEN, an international organization working on toxic chemical issues, examined levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in foam carpet pads commonly...

Toxic Chemicals Under Carpets

PR Newswire (press release) - ‎Apr 28, 2011‎

POPs is an acronym for Persistent Organic Pollutants, the most dangerous chemicals in the world. IPEN, an international organization working on toxic chemical issues, examined levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in foam carpet pads commonly...

India Today

Kerala CM fasts for pesticide ban

India Today - ‎Apr 25, 2011‎

They also appealed that India support the global ban of endosulphan at the Stockholm conference on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).

'Toxic district' destroying expats' families Emirates 24/7

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NSW Country Hour 26/4/11

ABC Local - Michael Condon - ‎Apr 26, 2011‎

On the NSW Country Hour today the non-government organisation - the InternationalPersistent Organic Pollutant (POP's) Elimination Network - says why its frustrated with Sydney University professor Ivan Kennedy's defence of ...

The Hindu

State to press Centre for Endosulfan ban

The Hindu - ‎Apr 18, 2011‎

THIRUVANANTHAPURAM: The Kerala government will press the Centre to adopt a stand in favour of a global ban on the production and use of Endosulfan at a conference of parties to the Stockholm Convention onPersistent Organic Pollutants beginning in ...

Activist Vandana Siva puts Pawar in dock Deccan Chronicle

Ban endosulfan: Environmentalists TwoCircles.net

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Phalke for director K Balachander

Indian Express - ‎16 hours ago‎

Thiruvananthapuram: Kerala on Friday hailed the decision of the Stockholm Convention onPersistent Organic Pollutants to phase out endosulfan.

The Hindu

Social, health costs of Endosulfan

The Hindu - Roy Mathew - ‎Apr 19, 2011‎

A report of the Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee, presented to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent OrganicPollutants, estimates that the increase in plant-protection costs from replacement of Endosulfan by chemical alternatives in ...

Oppn leader seeks ban on endosulfan Deccan Chronicle

Oommen Chandy writes to PM demanding ban on Endosulfan NetIndian

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The Hindu

Ruling front's hartal total, peaceful

The Hindu - ‎20 hours ago‎

The LDF had announced the hartal to coincide with the conclusion of the Conference of Parties to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants at Geneva. The news of the conditional global ban on Endosulfan, which came even as the hartal ...

The Hindu

Green groups call for national ban on endosulfan

GMANews.TV - ‎Apr 20, 2011‎

... Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) of which the Republic of the Philippines is a party," they said in their letter, the text of which was posted on the blog site of EcoWaste Coalition, one of the groups that made the appeal.

India Resists Ban on Deadly Pesticide Inter Press Service

Kerala govt steps up relief for endosulfan victims Indian Express

The Hindu - India Today - Economic Times - NDTV.com

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ABC Online

Professor says UN pesticide ban a mistake

ABC Online - ‎Apr 22, 2011‎

"If the UN determines it to be a persistent organic pollutant, they've made a mistake," he said. But Greenpeace spokesman Adam Walters says the proposed ban is appropriate.

Ecologist seeks adequate compensation to endosulfan victims

The Hindu - Roy Mathew - ‎Apr 26, 2011‎

Dr. Faizi said that it was unfortunate and embarrassing that Indian official delegation was fighting its people at the ongoing fifth meeting of the Conference of Parties (CoP) to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.

Government should warn public of cancer risks in foods

WatertownDailyTimes.com - ‎Apr 25, 2011‎

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are contaminants of all animal fat. Exposure takes place largely through consumption of animal fat.

Some Progress Made in Eliminating Toxic PCBs

Inter Press Service - Emilio Godoy - ‎Apr 21, 2011‎

PCBs, along with other chemical compounds like organochlorine pesticides and herbicides, are Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).

Endosulfan ban: Mullakkara writes to Pawar

Express Buzz - ‎Apr 23, 2011‎

He also urged Pawar to ensure India's support to a global ban on the pesticide at the conference of parties of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants scheduled to open at Geneva on April 25. "It is unbecoming of any government to ...


K''taka to re-impose ban on Endosulphan

PTI | 05:04 PM,Apr 18,2011
Bangalore, Apr 18 (PTI) Karnataka will soon re-impose the temporary ban on use and manufacture of the pesticide Endosulphan following the expiry of the 60-day ban. Minister for Energy Shobha Karandlaje, who has been leading the ban-Endosulphan movement in the state, much against the opposition from manufacturers, today said the issue of re-imposing the ban would be brought before the State Cabinet at its next meeting. "I have requested Chief Minister B S Yeddyurappa to bring the subject before the Cabinet so that the temporary ban continues till the Centre accords the state permission for banning Endosulphan permanently," she told reporters here. The minister hit at out Union Agriculture Minister Sharad Pawar for "taking a stand that Endosulphan cannot be banned" in the country. "Pawar says farmers are opposing Endosulphan ban. I doubt whether farmers have such a demand. It could be the demand of pseudo farmers and by Endosulphan manufacturers," she alleged. "He (Pawar) is trying to speak in support of Endosulphan manufacturers. Farmers in Punjab, Haryana, West Bengal, Assam and Kerala, besides Karnataka have faced the adverse effect of the pesticide," Karandlaje added. She had recently called on Pawar asking for a permanent ban on use and manufacture of Endosulphan in Karnataka. "If Pawar is sincere, let him order a study on the ill-effects of Endosulphan use. At least 6,000 people have suffered disabilities in Dakshina Kannada district in the state alone." Citing health hazards, the government had banned use of the pesticide on February 17. The Endosulphan Manufacturers Association has challenged the ban in the High Court.

30/04/2011

Achuthanandan scored on Endosulfan, admits KPCC

Kochi, Apr 30 (PTI) Congress in Kerala today admitted there had been ''lapses'' on dealing with the Endosulfan issue on which Chief Minister V S Achuthanandan had campaigned vigorously seeking a countrywide ban on the pesticide.
With the Stockholm Convention at Geneva adopting a resolution to phase out the toxic pesticide,the KPCC executive meeting held here felt that the Left could gain political mileage out of the issue though it was Centre which "gave the nod to the decision to ban the pesticide all over the world."
The KPCC admitted it could not put up a strong defence against Achuthanandan''s campaign on the Endosulfan issue.
There had been "lapses" on the part of the Congress in dealing with the matter, KPCC president Ramesh Chennithala told reporters here.
"However, India has reached a consensus with other parties concerned on the ban and a solution had been found to mitigate the sufferings of people in our state," he said.
He said the UDF would discuss the complaints raised by K Achuthan, candidate for Chittur in Palakkad, against Socialist Janata-Democratic leader K Krishnan Kutty that he had worked against Front candidates in the district.
Chennithala said Congress was capable of overcoming the ''false'' camapigns being raised against the party after the recent Assembly elections.
CPI-M-led LDF has been asking the Centre to ban Endosulfan which had allegedly caused over 400 deaths and serious health problems to 4,000 people in parts of Kasargode in north Kerala, where the pesticide was sprayed in a state-run cashew plantation. Endosulfan was banned in the state in 2005.
It had called a dawn-to-dusk hartal yesterday, demanding countrywide ban on the pesticide coinciding with the final day of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants.
Achuthanandan, who has been spearheading the campaign against Endosulfan for the last several years, hailed the Geneva outcome and had said "the pesticide lobby had to finally surrender before people''s movement." PTI MVG BN


Achuthanandan stages fast for ban on toxic pesticide

Thiruvananthapuram, April 25 (IANS) Kerala Chief Minister V.S. Achuthanandan Monday staged a seven-hour fast to demand a nation-wide ban on endosulphan, a highly toxic pesticide.
He began his fast at 10 a.m. along with a few cabinet colleagues. People from all walks of life, including a bishop, joined him in the fast which was held at the Martyr's Column here.
The fast was staged to coincide with the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants, which began in Geneva. During the April 25-29 convention, India has decided it would not support a call for a ban on the pesticide, a Left leader said.
Besides the chief minister's fast, activists of the ruling Left Democratic Front held protests in 13 districts of the state.
Achuthanandan said that Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's tackling of the issue was deplorable.
'Kerala and Karnataka have banned this pesticide but the centre says that only if the whole country wants a ban, it is possible. Does it mean that only if the whole of the country suffers will the centre order the ban?' asked Achuthanandan.
The highlight of Achuthanandan's fast was the presence of former central minister and veteran Bharatiya Janata Party leader O. Rajagopal, who was seated next to him.
Leader of Opposition Oommen Chandy of the Congress, who was away in Delhi to brief the prime minister on the immediate intervention to ban the pesticide, was critical of Achuthanandan.
'He should have conducted this fast in West Bengal because the (ruling Left) government has not yet asked for a ban. It is only Kerala and Karnataka who have banned this,' Chandy told IANS.
Achuthanandan 'is making political capital out of this because in the five years that he was in power he never took up a case against the use of endosulphan', Chandy said.
The use of endosulfan in the estates of state-owned Plantation Corporation of Kerala (PCK) in Kasargode district began in the early 1970s and continued till 2001.
About 500 deaths since 1995 have been officially acknowledged as related to the spraying of endosulfan in about 11 villages. Unofficial estimates put the deaths since the late 1970s around 4,000.

Endosulfan is commonly used as pesticide and is very cheap as compared to its other substitutes in the market. India was not in favour of banning the chemical, because of its low price. While many countries supported the idea to ban endosulfan, a few other nations, including China and Uganda, had opposed the idea.
Various NGOs and health authorities claim that the chemical has caused several deaths in human beings, urging for a ban. The pesticide can cause health complications and affect the environment, they claim.



The meeting of the parties of the Stockholm Convention which met in Geneva decided to put a conditional ban on the endosulphan globally. India which is a major producer and exporter of the pesticide had strongly opposed the ban. When its efforts to avoid a ban faced stringent opposition from even friendly nations like Bahrain and Qatar, the Indian representatives in Geneva tried to reach a consensus. But that too failed as even China and Brazil, which also use the pesticide widely, did not support it. At last India also had to agree to the majority opinion of ban, though accepting the conditions put forward by the countries opposing the ban. Countries including India will be allowed a time period of 11 years to completely ban the pesticide.

However, the present decision to ban is only the primary step. Each country should submit a list of agricultural products which need endosulphan. A committee that meets in October will study the list and discuss the scopes of alternatives. It will take about one year for the Parliament to acknowledge the ban. The agreement reached by the countries in this conference should be acknowledged by the respective legislatures of the member countries also. As the pesticide is now banned, each country should report to the Stockholm Convention regarding the stock of the pesticide in the country.

Kerala is in a mood of celebration as the cause it brought forward was accepted and acknowledged by the world, despite the opposition of India. The local protests and strikes in Kasargod to the satyagraha of Chief Minister – everything played its part in bringing the endusulphan as a major environmental issue of the state. The satyagraha of the CM on the first day of the conference was discussed even in Geneva. The LDF also called for a hartal on Friday, when the conference ended. Different studies and reports that depict the tragedies that the endosulphan brought to Kasargod found their place in Geneva also.

However, the global ban may not bring great gains to Kerala, where the dangerous pesticide is already banned. What remains to be done here is the proper rehabilitation of the victims, and the blocking of the continuing flow of the endosulphan into the state despite the ban, etc. But, while all parties and groups are competing to take credit of the global ban, these issues are not much in the air. The state-run Plantation Corporation in whose estates the endosulphan was sprayed from 1978 to 2001 is no more in the picture. The political parties including the left parties, which had earlier opposed the ban even in Kerala, have now emerged as the champions of the ban.

The dangerous pesticide endosulphan was used in the cashew plantations of Kasargod in north Kerala more than a decade. The pesticide was sprayed aerially in the plantation from 1978 to 2001, which resulted in serious after-effects including environmental and health hazards. The victims of the endosulphan have since been in the path of struggle, not only try to erase the bad marks the pesticide had sealed on their lives, but also to bring to light the harmful effects of the poisonous chemical. Social activists, environmental and human rights groups, etc joined their struggle to create awareness about the chemical. The struggle of the people of some villages in Kasargod gradually became the struggle of whole Kerala and now, the voice of the world.

'Toxic district' destroying expats' families

Pesticide use said to leave children deformed; UAE-based organisations join battle to ban Endosulphan

By
  • VM Sathish

Published Sunday, April 24, 2011
The Kasargodu district of the South Indian state Kerala has a close connection with the Middle East in general, and the UAE in particular.

Thousands of people from the district are working here in the emirates.

While these expatriates' families often rely on the Gulf connection to better their lives, they are facing a much bigger battle at home - one that involves life, death and a toxic pesticide, Endosulfan.

Kasargodu district is a major cashew plantation area and Endosulphan was used as a pesticide for many years - sprayed from helicopters over the plantations.

Residents of the district and major human rights organisations – including the National Human Rights Commission of India - have since reported deadly toxic side effects on residents of the district.

Victims claim exposure to the pesticide has caused them to suffer cancer, physical deformations and abnormalities, epilepsy, multiple congenital skeletal deformations and other chronic diseases.

Reports have also come in about the death of flora and fauna, including frogs, birds, chickens and cows.

The seriousness of the issue was driven home here in the UAE when the eight-year old daughter of a UAE-based expatriate suffered an abnormal growth of her head while she was residing in Kasargodu.

Speaking to this website, the father, who requested his name withheld, said, "About 4,000 victims are slowly dying there. The victims have stunted growth and deformed limbs. Children are the worst affected."

The drive against the use of Endosulphan has been on-going for some time now in India, but with such a large representation from the district here in the UAE, expatriates have decided to get involved to ensure the pesticide is banned.

Endosulphan's future will be voted on at the sixth meeting of the Persistent Organic Pollutants' Review Committee (POPRC) of the Stockholm Convention that is on in Geneva, Switzerland, this week.

More than 2,500 children from Malarvadi Bala Sangham (Childrens' Club) Dubai, participated in a protest movement against Endosulphan by painting pictures and casting their symbolic votes in support of people back home born with deformities and other health problems.

The pesticide has been banned in over 80 countries and expatriate associations here are canvassing votes from community members for online petitions, asking for a total ban on the pesticide in India.

The National Human Rights Commission of India has also advised that the deadly pesticide should be banned.

Dubai Art Lovers Association (Dala), a leading socio-political orgaisation of the Indian community in Dubai, MAS Sharjah, Ras Al Khimah Expatriates Association, and a number of smaller organisations representing the Indian community are all campaigning that the Indian government take a stand against Endosulphan .

Social networking sites are being flooded with anti-Endosulphan campaigns.

K M Abbas, President, Endosulfan Victims Support Group, UAE Chapter told Emirates 24|7: "We have joined the campaign with other Indian organisations demanding that the Indian Government ban Endosulphan use and vote against the product at the Geneva Convention on April 25, 2011. Expatriate families are reluctant to acknowledge that they suffer health problems from Endosulphan because they will not get proper marriage proposals for their sons and daughters. It is a grave situation."

Kerala Chief Minister, V S Achuthanantha, will participate in the protest against Endosulphan by fasting on April 25, 2011, the day when decision makers would be discussing and voting in Geneva.
http://www.emirates247.com/news/emirates/toxic-district-destroying-expats-families-2011-04-24-1.384646

Kerala politics forced UPA to take stand against Endosulfan
BS Reporters / New Delhi May 1, 2011, 0:18 IST


Environmental activists are celebrating India's agreeing to a gradual ban on Endosulfan on the final day of a meeting of parties to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Geneva. But it was a bitterly fought political battle between the Left Front and the Congress in Kerala that pushed the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government to take a stand against the pesticide.
In a reversal of its decade-old position, India yesterday agreed to the inclusion of endosulfan in Annex A, a listing of globally-banned pesticides, of the Stockholm Convention on PoPs. As Endosulfan has finally been put under Annex A, with exemptions for few countries like India, production and use of the pesticide will come into force within five years, which can be extended by another five years. After that it will take another year for the ban to be executed. This would mean that India can continue to use endosulfan for at least 11 years.
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India, China and Uganda are the only three countries who had sought exemptions for 44 pests in 14 crops. Now, India has to ratify its decision and convey it to the Stockholm Convention, so that it can avail of exemptions and financial support.
But behind this tussle over using or not using the pesticide, is a hard battle fought out by top leaders of the Left and the Congress.
Even environmental activists agree that the Congress leaders from Kerala and their rivals from the Left forced the Centre to review its stand on Endosulfan. Kerala Chief Minister V S Achuthanandan and Congress leader V M Sudheeran were at the fore front, asking for a nationwide ban on endosulfan. The campaign started in the last leg of state Assembly elections. But public opinion built up quickly against Congress leaders at the Centre for their silence on the issue. R Sridhar of NGO Thanal said, "The media and the public in Kerala criticised defence minister A K Antony for his silence."
Antony and overseas affairs minister Vayalar Ravi rushed to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and appealed for a ban on Endosulfan. In fact, it was Antony who had banned the chemical in Kerala initially. As Achuthanandan began a day-long fast seeking a ban, his counterpart in the Congress, former chief minister Oommen Chandy, rushed to Delhi to meet Congress President Sonia Gandhi to save the honour of the party. Sridhar said the rol
e of environment minister Jairam Ramesh was crucial too, as he had promised to ban it if he was convinced that it was bad. He was also waiting for a good bargain. "So, when they got it, the government was ready to consider the ban."
http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/kerala-politics-forced-upa-to-take-stand-against-endosulfan/434056/

  1. News for endosulfan pesticide


    Mangalorean.com
  2. Govt to punish endosulfan traders
    1 hour ago
    BELGAUM: After banning the use of endosulfan pesticide in the state, the government has decided to punish those selling endosulfan despite the ban. ...
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  3. Endosulfan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

     - 10:26am
    Endosulfan is an off-patent organochlorine insecticide and acaricide. This colourless solid has emerged as a highly controversial agrichemical due to its ...
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  5. Endosulfan to Be Banned, Pesticide Poses "Unacceptable Risks," EPA ...

    10 Jun 2010 ... The EPA, declaring that endosulfan is unsafe for farm workers, moves to ban one of the last organochlorine pesticides left in the U.S. Like ...
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  9. EXTOXNET PIP - ENDOSULFAN

    Regulatory Status: Endosulfan is a highly toxic pesticide in EPA toxicity class I. It is a Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP). Labels for products containing ...
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  10. Killer Pesticide Endosulfan Banned - Trivandrum News | Yentha.com

    29 Apr 2011 ... The pesticide lobby's attempt at bribing the ministers for continuing the use ofEndosulfan has failed, he added. ...
    www.yentha.com/news/view/1 - Cached
  11. Left party MPs demand ban on endosulfan pesticide

    28 Apr 2011 ... A group of Left MPs today held a protest in Parliament House demanding a ban on endosulfan pesticide and questioned whether the reluctance ...
    www.deccanherald.com › National - Cached
  12. Pesticide body welcomes petition seeking ban on endosulfan - Yahoo ...

    26 Apr 2011 ... Read 'Pesticide body welcomes petition seeking ban on endosulfan' on Yahoo! News. New Delhi, Apr 26 (PTI) A pesticide manufacturing body ...
    in.news.yahoo.com/pesticide-body-welcomes-petition-seeking-ban-endosulfan-164100190.html - Cached
  13. Videos for endosulfan pesticide

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Endosulfan - the Killer!!

Let us join together and fight to eliminate it completely from India!

Stockholm convention
Voting on a Global Ban of Endosulfan is today (29th April 2011)
Endosulfan - the Kerala Story
Report on Health Effects on Endosulfan and progress of rehabilitation activities in Kerala. Read the Kerala Story here
Ban Endosulfan Day-25th April 2011
Click here to view the video on Ban Endosulfan Day observed in Kerala.
India Vision TV is running a full story on the Ban Endosulfan Campaign. Click here 

Our mission is to get rid of the deadly chemical Endosulfan from India. We are part of an international movement to get governments ban this chemical from use.

Support our campaign for a global ban. We invite everyone to join our movement.

You can spread the word, write petitions / letters to the Government to ban the chemical or join the movement by signing our online petition.

Or, you can simply join the campaign by subscribing to the campaign news, periodic updates in this website.

The international meeting on POP chemicals (Stockholm convention, Conference of Parties) is being held in Geneva from 25th of April.

Voting on a Global Ban of Endosulfan is today (29th April 2011)

The decision to enlist endosulfan in Annexure A of the convention document for elimination should happen on that day provided, Govt of India nods its head with permission.

But, initial indications are that India is trying to betray its people. The draft statement circulated by India in the convention claims that there is no health hazard!!

 

Read Draft Statement

 

You too can join the campaign by sending petitions and bringing this to the attention of the global community and policy makers.

 

Join the Movement

 

Click on the button above to find out how you can support the campaign.

But, will India vote for it?

Click on the image above to see a Malayalam poster on this campaign.

 

You can subscribe to the Ban Endosulfan campaign by filling up the form given below


 

Thank you.

story of Kasaragod

From the mid 1970s, the pesticide endosulfan has been aerially sprayed on a cashew nut plantation covering several villages in Kasargod District, Kerala State, India. People residing in the villages within the plantation have been afflicted with different kinds of illnesses which, according to the villagers, were not present before the cashew nut plantation started their operations.

People also noticed the death of fishes, honeybees, frogs, birds, chicken and even cows. In 1979, a farmer began to suspect that the pesticides being aerially sprayed in the plantation might have caused the deformities and stunted growth, which, he observed in 3 of his calves. A journalist reported the story warning that endosulfan, the pesticide used in the aerial spraying, might have been the cause. The story raised awareness among the people who started voicing out their complaints about health problems and environmental damage.

Over 3 decades of campaign in the affected Kasaragod district of Kerala has resulted in numerous studies, reports and fact finding missions. You can read more about the story of Kasaragod from the campaign resources here.

campaign resources

Our campaign to get Endosulfan banned from India is strongly built on scientific studies and reports. There is a vast databank consisting of reports of fact-finding missions, videos, photographs, links to articles in leading newspapers and magazines.

First, you may like to read the detailed Dossier on the 'Ban Endosulfan' campaign  (10.7 MB). Then, you can click on the quick links below to jump to the categories.

A Monograph on Endosulfan – All you want to know about Endosulfan 


Report on Health Effects on Endosulfan and progress of rehabilitation activities in Kerala. 


Kerala CM, Achutanandan leads mass fast seeking ban on endosulfan on 25th April 2011. Click here to read about the protest


Evidence mounts against endosulfan as Centre dithers – Article in The Hindu April 3, 2011


Pawar on a sticky wicket after batting for toxic pesticide 


Report in Mangalam (a Malayalam publication) on how Sharad Pawar, the Agriculture Minister of Government of India, misled the Parliament.


Brazil – Petition against endosulfan – Ban comes too late. 


National Commission for Women asks Government of India to take steps to contain Menace. 


Gazette Notification of Government of India – withholding sale of Endosulfan in Kerala. 


Plan Document for Establishing a Comprehensive Relief and Remediation System for the Endosulfan affected community in Kasaragod. 


The Proceedings of the Two Day Consultative Workshop On Developing a Comprehensive Relief and Remediation System for the Endosulfan affected community Organised by District Panchayath, Kasaragod, Kerala – A presentation. 


Endosulfan Poisoning and the Struggle of the community in Kasaragod to regain life and the living land – A Presentation at the COP3 of Rotterdam Convention 2008. 


Does Endosulfan have an Alternative? Non-Pesticidal Management – A large scale success story from Andhra Pradesh. .


India's Endosulfan disaster – A review of the health impacts and status of remediation –  to read the report by Dr.Aditya of Community health cell, Bengaluru.


Endosulfan – Fact sheet and Answers to common questions – An IPEN Working Group project (A comprehensive fact sheet on endosulfan produced by Thanal (India), 2004) : 


End of the Road for Endosulfan – A Call for action against a dangerous pesticide ( A summary report by the Environmental Justice Foundation, London,UK, 2002) : 


Long Term Monitoring – The Impact of pesticides on the people and eco-system – Part II Report( Preliminary Findings of the survey on the impact of aerial spraying of endosulfan on the people and ecosystem in Kasaragod, Kerala, India by Thanal (India),2002) : 


Endosulfan poisoning in Kasaragod, Kerala, India – Report of a fact finding mission (A report by Dr Romeo F Quijano for the Pesticide Action Network-Asia Pacific, 2002) : 


Analysis of samples from Padre village from Kasaragod district of Keralam for endosulfan residues ( A report by Padma S Vankar et al, for the Pesticide Residue Monitoring Study of the Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, 2001) : 


Final Report of the investigation of unusual illnesses allegedly produced by endosulfan exposure in Padre village of Kasaragod district ( N.Kerala) (A comprehensive epidemiological reference area study by the National Institute of Occupational Health of the Indian Council for Medical Research, Ahmedabad, 2002) :


Health hazards of aerial spraying of endosulfan in Kasaragod district, Kerala (A Comprehensive report of the Expert Committee appointed by the Government of Kerala, 2003. ) : 


Effect of endosulfan in male reproductive development (An article by Dr Saiyed et al in the Children's Health Section of the Environmental Health Perspectives, December 2003) : 


Reports in the Down To Earth (Four separate reports in the Down to Earth, a publication of the Centre for Science and Environment. These reports expose the issue as well as the foul play by the government agencies and scientists of the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation to help the industry protect their chemical endosulfan from being banned. )

  • Report-Feb2001-pdf 
  • Report-July2002-pdf 
  • Report-Apr2004-pdf 
  • Report-Aug2005-pdf 

newsCAPE, April 2005 Issue (A quarterly newsletter of the Community Action for Pesticide Elimination (CAPE). This issue talks about the endosulfan issue and its present status in detail.) : 


Safeguarding children from pesticide exposure – lessons from the endosulfan tragedy in India (A presentation by Dr Sukanya et al, at the 3rd ICCHE, London, 2004) : 


Children in Kasaragod (An appeal presentation released by Thanal, 2004) : 


Position Paper of Pesticide Action Network (PAN) Asia and the Pacific on Endosulfan : 


News in Mathrubhumi (Malayalam) 


News in 'Malayalam' magazine (Malayalam) 


News in Deshabhimani (Malayalam) 


Thiruvamkulam Nature Lovers Movement v. Plantation Corporation of Kerala (2002.08.12), verdict banning aerial spray of endosulfan – 


How to grow crops without endosulfan? PAN-Germany's Field Guide to Non-chemical Pest Management – 


support global ban

Endosulfan has been banned across 74 countries in all the continents after elaborate studies. In our own country Kerala and Karnataka have banned this chemical after finding health and environment damages.

You can join the campaign demanding our government to bring a nation wide ban on Endosulfan. To urge the the Ministry of Environment & Forests to support the International Ban on Endosulfan in the upcoming Stockholm Convention, you can become a signatory in our online petition.

It is our duty to ensure that the ministry does not succumb to the pressure of corporate lobby,as the chemical corporations are much worried about their profit than the safety of farm workers and consumers. Also, we as responsible citizens should be keenly watching the stand and proceedings both nationally and internationally till this toxic is phased out. Click on the links below to view and sign the petition.

 

Change.ORG

 

Please remember to subscribe to the campaign news, periodic updates in this website.

1. Song from India Vision TV

Click on the image below to view the movie in a new window.

2. Animation Video

Pesticides worth more than 30 billion US dollar are intentionally released into the global environment every year. Many of these are highly toxic and have immediate adverse effects on human health, wildlife, local food sources such as cattle or fish, beneficial insects and biodiversity. Several of them have chronic effects including cancers, reproductive problems, birth defects, hormonal disruption and damage to the immune system. Impacts come from direct exposure in use, spray drift, washing work clothes used while spraying, home pesticide storage, pesticide dumps, and persistence in the environment. One of these highly problematic pesticides is Endosulfan.

Pesticide Action Network (PAN) is working towards reducing the overall use and risks of pesticides as well as the dependence on pesticides and to increase support for community-based control over a sustainably produced food supply. It has brought out a publication  based on the information provided at www.oisat.org. It enables to provide farmers with practical guides to avoid the use of Endosulfan. The recommended practices are scientifically based. Most of the farm practices described in this publication, the farmers can do by themselves. The materials needed can be found in the backyards of farmers or in their kitchens or can be purchased in the local agricultural suppliers.

Download Field Guide

 

If you have anything to say about this website or our campaign, please send us a mail through this form. Meanwhile, don't forget to subscribe to the campaign news and periodic updates in this website.

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Endosulfan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Endosulfan
6,7,8,9,10,10-Hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxathiepine-3-oxide
Other names[hide]
Benzoepin, Endocel, Parrysulfan, Phaser, Thiodan, Thionex
Identifiers
CAS number 115-29-7 Yes
ChemSpider 21117730 Yes
KEGG C11090 
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C9H6Cl6O3S
Molar mass 406.93 g mol−1
Density 1.745 g/cm³
Melting point

70-100 °C, 343-373 K, 158-212 °F

Solubility inwater 0.33 mg/L
Hazards
EU classification Yes (T, Xi, N)
R-phrases R24/25 R36 R50/53
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
1
2
0
 (what is this?)  (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Endosulfan is an off-patent organochlorine insecticide and acaricide. This colourless solid has emerged as a highly controversial agrichemical[1] due to its acute toxicity, potential forbioaccumulation, and role as an endocrine disruptor. It is banned in more than 63 countries, including the European Union, Australia and New Zealand, and other Asian and West African nations,[2] and being phased out in the United States,[3][4] Brazil[5] and Canada.[6] It is still used extensively in many other countries including India and China. It is produced by Bayer CropScienceMakhteshim Agan, and Government-of-India–owned Hindustan Insecticides Limited among others. Because of its threats to the environment, a global ban on the manufacture and use of endosulfan and its isomers worldwide was agreed,in the Stockholm Convention on 29th April 2011., subject to certain exemptions proposed by India. The decision will not be binding on India unless specifically ratified by the country.[7]

Contents

 [hide]

[edit]Uses

Endosulfan has been used in agriculture around the world to control insect pests includingwhiteflysaphidsleafhoppersColorado potato beetles and cabbage worms.[8] Because of its unique mode of action, it is useful in resistance management; however, because it is non-specific, it can negatively impact populations of beneficial insects.[9] It is, however, considered to be moderately toxic to honey bees,[10] and it is less toxic to bees than organophosphateinsecticides.[11]

[edit]Production

The World Health Organization estimated world wide annual production to be about 9,000 metric tonnes (t) in the early 1980s.[12] From 1980–89, worldwide consumption averaged 10,500 t per year, and for the 1990s use increased to 12,800 t per year.

Endosulfan is a derivative of hexachlorocyclopentadiene and is chemically similar to aldrinchlordane, and heptachlor. Specifically, it is produced by the Diels-Alder reaction of hexachlorocyclopentadiene with cis-butene-1,4-diol and subsequent reaction of the adduct withthionyl chloride. Technical endosulfan is a 7:3 mixture of stereoisomers, designated α and β. α- and β-endosulfan are conformational isomersarising from the pyramidal stereochemistry of sulfur. α-Endosulfan is the more thermodynamically stable of the two, thus β-endosulfan irreversibly converts to the α form, although the conversion is slow.[13][14]

[edit]History of commercialization and regulation

  • Early 1950s: Endosulfan was developed.
  • 1954: Hoechst AG (now Bayer CropScience) won USDA approval for the use of endosulfan in the United States.[15]
  • 2000: Home and garden use in the United States was terminated by agreement with the EPA.[11]
  • 2002: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recommended that endosulfan registration should be cancelled,[16] and the EPA determined that endosulfan residues on food and in water pose unacceptable risks. The agency allowed endosulfan to stay on the US market, but imposed restrictions on its agricultural uses.[11]
  • 2007: International steps were taken to restrict the use and trade of endosulfan. It is recommended for inclusion in the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent,[17] and the European Union proposed inclusion in the list of chemicals banned under theStockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Such inclusion would ban all use and manufacture of endosulfan globally.[18]Meanwhile, the Canadian government announced that endosulfan was under consideration for phase-out,[19] and Bayer CropScience voluntarily pulled its endosulfan products from the U.S. market[20] but continues to sell the products elsewhere.[21]
  • 2008: In February, environmental, consumer, and farm labor groups including the Natural Resources Defense Council,[22] Organic Consumers Association, and the United Farm Workers[23] called on the U.S. EPA to ban endosulfan. In May, coalitions of scientists,[24]environmental groups, and arctic tribes asked the EPA to cancel endosulfan,[25] and in July a coalition of environmental and workers groups filed a lawsuit against the EPA challenging its 2002 decision to not ban it.[26] In October, the Review Committee of the Stockholm Convention moved endosulfan along in the procedure for listing under the treaty,[27] while India blocked its addition to the Rotterdam Convention.[28]
  • 2009: The Stockholm Convention's Persistent Organic Pollutants Review Committee (POPRC) agreed that endosulfan is a persistent organic pollutant and that "global action is warranted", setting the stage of a global ban.[29] New Zealand banned endosulfan.[30]
  • 2010: The POPRC nominated endosulfan to be added to the Stockholm Convention at the Conference of Parties (COP) in April 2011, which would result in a global ban.[31] The EPA announced that the registration of endosulfan in the U.S. will be cancelled[4][32] Australia banned the use of the chemical.[33]

[edit]Health effects

Endosulfan is one of the most toxic pesticides on the market today, responsible for many fatal pesticide poisoning incidents around the world.[34] Endosulfan is also a xenoestrogen—a synthetic substance that imitates or enhances the effect of estrogens—and it can act as anendocrine disruptor, causing reproductive and developmental damage in both animals and humans. Whether endosulfan can cause cancer is debated. With regard to consumers intake of endosulfan from residues on food, the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations has concluded that long-term exposure from food is unlikely to present a public health concern, but short term exposure can exceed acutereference doses.[35]

[edit]Toxicity

Endosulfan is acutely neurotoxic to both insects and mammals, including humans. The US EPA classifies it as Category I: "Highly Acutely Toxic" based on a LD50 value of 30 mg/kg for female rats,[11] while the World Health Organization classifies it as Class II "Moderately Hazardous" based on a rat LD50 of 80 mg/kg.[36] It is a GABA-gated chloride channel antagonist, and a Ca2+, Mg2+ ATPase inhibitor. Both of these enzymes are involved in the transfer of nerve impulses. Symptoms of acute poisoning include hyperactivity, tremors, convulsions, lack of coordination, staggering, difficulty breathing, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and in severe cases, unconsciousness.[15] Doses as low as 35 mg/kg have been documented to cause death in humans,[37] and many cases of sub-lethal poisoning have resulted in permanent brain damage.[15] Farm workers with chronic endosulfan exposure are at risk of rashes and skin irritation.[11]

EPA's acute reference dose for dietary exposure to endosulfan is 0.015 mg/kg for adults and 0.0015 mg/kg for children. For chronic dietary expsoure, the EPA references doses are 0.006 mg/(kg·day) and 0.0006 mg/(kg·day) for adults and children, respectively.[11]

[edit]Endocrine disruption

Theo Colborn, an expert on endocrine disruption, lists endosulfan as a known endocrine disruptor,[38] and both the EPA and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry consider endosulfan to be a potential endocrine disruptor. Numerous in vitro studies have documented its potential to disrupt hormones and animal studies have demonstrated its reproductive and developmental toxicity, especially among males.[11][15] A number of studies have documented that it acts as an anti-androgen in animals.[39] Environmentally relevant doses of endosulfan equal to the EPA's safe dose of 0.006 mg/kg/day have been found to affect gene expression in female rats similarly to the effects of estrogen.[40] It is not known whether endosulfan is a human teratogen (an agent that causes birth defects), though it has significant teratogenic effects in laboratory rats.[41] A 2009 assessment concluded that endocrine disruption occurs only at endosulfan doses that cause neurotoxicity.[42]

[edit]Reproductive and developmental effects

Several studies have documented that endosulfan can also affect human development. Researchers studying children from many villages inKasargod District, Kerala, India have linked endosulfan exposure to delays in sexual maturity among boys. Endosulfan was the only pesticide applied to cashew plantations in the villages for 20 years and had contaminated the village environment. The researchers compared the villagers to a control group of boys from a demographically similar village that lacked a history of endosulfan pollution. Relative to the control group, the exposed boys had high levels of endosulfan in their bodies, lower levels of testosterone, and delays in reaching sexual maturity.Birth defects of the male reproductive system including cryptorchidism were also more prevalent in the study group. The researchers concluded that "our study results suggest that endosulfan exposure in male children may delay sexual maturity and interfere with sex hormone synthesis."[43] Increased incidences of cryptorchidism have been observed in other studies of endosulfan exposed populations.[44]

A 2007 study by the California Department of Public Health found that women who lived near farm fields sprayed with endosulfan and the related organochloride pesticide dicofol during the first eight weeks of pregnancy are several times more likely to give birth to children withautism. This is the first study to look for an association between endosulfan and autism, and additional study is needed to confirm the connection.[45] A 2009 assessment concluded that epidemiology and rodent studies that suggest male reproductive and autism effects are open to other interpretations, and that developmental or reproductive toxicity occurs only at endosulfan doses that cause neurotoxicity.[42]

[edit]Endosulfan and cancer

Endosulfan is not listed as known, probable, or possible carcinogen by the EPA, IARC, or other agencies. There are no epidemiological studies linking exposure to endosulfan specifically to cancer in humans, but in vitro assays have shown that endosulfan can promote proliferation of human breast cancer cells.[46] Evidence of cancinogenicity in animals is mixed.[15]

[edit]Environmental fate

Endosulfan breaks down into endosulfan sulfate and endosulfan diol, both of which, according to the EPA, have "structures similar to the parent compound and are also of toxicological concern…The estimated half-lives for the combined toxic residues (endosulfan plus endosulfan sulfate) [range] from roughly 9 months to 6 years." The EPA concluded that, "[b]ased on environmental fate laboratory studies, terrestrial field dissipation studies, available models, monitoring studies, and published literature, it can be concluded that endosulfan is a very persistent chemical which may stay in the environment for lengthy periods of time, particularly in acid media." The EPA also concluded that "[e]ndosulfan has relatively high potential to bioaccumulate in fish."[11] It is also toxic to amphibians: low levels have been found to kill tadpoles.[47]

Endosulfan is subject to long range atmospheric transporti.e. it can travel long distances from where it is used. For example, a 2008 report by the National Park Service found that endosulfan commonly contaminates air, water, plants and fish of national parks in the U.S. Most of these parks are far from areas where endosulfan is used.[48] Endosulfan has also been detected in dust from the Sahara Desert collected in the Caribbean after being blown across the Atlantic Ocean.[49] In 2009, the committee of scientific experts of the Stockholm Convention concluded that "endosulfan is likely, as a result of long range environmental transport, to lead to significant adverse human health and environmental effects such that global action is warranted."[50]

[edit]Status by region

[edit]India

India the world's largest user of endosulfan,[8] and a major producer with three companies—Excel Crop Care, Hindustan Insecticides Ltd, and Coromandal Fertilizers—producing 4,500 tonnes annually for domestic use and another 4,000 tonnes for export.[51]

In 2001, in Kerala, India, endosulfan spraying became suspect when linked to a series of abnormalities noted in local children.[52] Initially endosulfan was banned, yet under pressure from the pesticide industry this ban was largely revoked. The situation there has been called "next in magnitude only to the Bhopal gas tragedy." [53]

The pesticide as banned in the State when A.K. Antony was Chief Minister following a report by the National Institute of Occupational Health . The report had then stated that Endosulfan was behind the dreadful state of farmers and children in Kasaragod.

In 2006, in Kerala, compensation of Rs 50,000 was paid to the next kin of each of 135 people who were identified as having died as a result of endosulfan use. Chief Minister V. S. Achuthanandan also gave an assurance to people affected by poisoning, "that the government would chalk out a plan to take care of treatment, food and other needs of the affected persons and that its promise of rehabilitation of victims would be honoured."[54]

India's Second largest political party BJP Vice President Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi also demanded the banning of Endosulphan [2].India is strongly opposed to adding endosulfan to the Rotterdam[55] and Stockholm Conventions.[18] BJP demands ban on endosulfan " BJP is with the people who are suffering due to the ill-effects of the pesticide in Kasaragod district," senior BJP leader and Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha Sushma Swaraj said[56]

Madhya Pradesh, whose capital saw the world's worst industrial disaster in 1984, made a common cause with Kerala Chief Minister on seeking a ban on endosulfan.Writing separate letters to the Kerala CM and Union Agriculture Minister Sharad Pawar, MP's Agriculture and Farmers' Welfare Minister Ramkrishna Kusmaria said he fully supports the crusade against toxic chemicals. "MP understands the dire consequences of manmade disaster," Kusmaria said in his letter to Achuthanandan, while referring to the Bhopal gas tragedy that took thousands of lives. [57]

Karnataka government also banned the use of endosulfan, an insecticide, with immediate effect. Briefing presspersons after the State Cabinet meeting, Minister for Higher Education V.S. Acharya said the Cabinet discussed the harmful effects of endosulfan on the health of farmers and people living in rural areas. The government will now invoke the provisions of the Insecticides Act, 1968 (a Central act) and write a letter to the Union Government about the ban. Minister for Energy, and Food and Civil Supplies Shobha Karandlaje, who has been spearheading a movement seeking a ban on endosulfan, said, "I am grateful to Chief Minister B.S. Yeddyurappa and members of the Cabinet for approving the ban.[58]

Rajendra Singh Rana has written a letter to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh demanding the withdrawal of the National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH) study on Endosulfan titled "Report Of The Investigation Of Unusual Illness" allegedly produced by the Endosulfan exposure in Padre village of Kasargode district in north Kerala. In his statement Mr. Rana said "The NIOH report is flawed. I'm in complete agreement with what the workers have to say on this. In fact, I have already made representation to the Prime Minister and concerned Union Ministers of health and environment demanding immediate withdrawal of the report," as reported by The Economic Times and Outlook India[59][60]

Mrs. Vibhavari Dave, local leader and Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA), from Bhavnagar, Gujarat voiced her concerns on the impact of ban of Endosulfan on families and workers of Bhavnagar. She was a part of the delegation with Bhavnagar MP, Rajendra Singh Rana, which submitted a memorandum to the district collector's office to withdraw the NIOH report calling for ban of Endosulfan.[61][62] The Pollution Control Board of the Government of Kerala, prohibited the use of Endosulfan in the state of Kerala on 10 November 2010.[63] On February 18, 2011, the Karnataka Government followed suit and suspended the use of Endosulfan for a period of 60 days in the state.[64] Indian Union Minister of Agriculture Sharad Pawar has ruled out implementing a similar ban at the national level despite the fact that endosulfan has banned in 63 countries including European Union, Australia and New Zealand.[65]

The Government of Gujarat had initiated a study in response to the workers rally in Bhavnagar and representations made by Sishuvihar, anNGO based in Ahmadabad. The committee constituted for the study also included former Dy.Director of NIOH, Ahmadabad. The committee noted that the WHOFAOIARC and US EPA have indicated that endosulfan is not carcinogenic, not teratogenic, not mutagenic and notgenotoxic. The highlight of this report is the farmer exposure study based on analysis of their blood reports for residues of endosulfan and the absence of any residues. This corroborates the lack of residues in worker exposure studies.[66]

[edit]New Zealand

Endosulfan was banned in New Zealand by the Environmental Risk Management Authority effective January 2009[30] after a concerted campaign by environmental groups and the Green Party.

[edit]Philippines

A shipment of about 10 tonnes of endosulfan was illegally stowed on the ill-fated MV Princess of the Stars, a ferry that sank off the waters ofRomblon (Sibuyan Island), Philippines during a storm in June 2008. Search, rescue, and salvage efforts were suspended when the endosulfan shipment was discovered, and blood samples from divers at the scene were sent to Malaysia for analysis.[67] The Department of Health of the Philippines has temporarily banned the consumption of fish caught in the area.[68] Endosulfan is classified as a "Severe Marine Pollutant" by the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code.[17]

[edit]United States

Endosulfan use in the US in pounds per square mile by county in 2002. (From [1])

In the United States, endosulfan is only registered for agricultural use, and these uses are being phased out.[4] It has been used extensively on cottonpotatoestomatoes, and apples according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).[69] The EPA estimates that 1.38 million lb of endosulfan were used annually from 1987 to 1997.[11]The US exported more than 300,000 lbs of endosulfan from 2001–2003, mostly to Latin America,[70] but production and export has since stopped.

In California, endosulfan contamination from the San Joaquin Valley has been implicated in the extirpation of the mountain yellow-legged frog from parts of the nearbySierra Nevada Mountains.[71] In Florida, levels of contamination the Everglades andBiscayne Bay are high enough to pose a threat to some aquatic organisms.[72][73][74]

In 2007, the EPA announced it was rereviewing the safety of endosulfan.[75] The following year, Pesticide Action Network and NRDC petitioned the EPA to ban endosulfan,[76] and a coalition of environmental and labor groups sued the EPA seeking to overturn its 2002 decision to not ban endosulfan.[26] In June 2010, the EPA announced it was negotiating a phaseout of all uses with the sole U.S. manufacturer,Makhteshim Agan and a complete ban on the compound.[4]

An official statement by Makhteshim Agan of North America (MANA) states that "From a scientific standpoint, MANA continues to disagree fundamentally with EPA's conclusions regarding endosulfan and believes that key uses are still eligible for re-registration." The statement adds, "However, given the fact that the endosulfan market is quite small and the cost of developing and submitting additional data high, we have decided to voluntarily negotiate an agreement with EPA that provides growers with an adequate time frame to find alternatives for the damaging insect pests currently controlled by endosulfan," [77][78]

[edit]Australia

Australia banned endosulfan October 12, 2010[79][80][81] with a two year phase-out for stock of endosulfan containing products.[79] Australia had, in 2008, announced endosulfan would not be banned.[82] Citing New Zealand's ban, the Australian Greens called for "zero tolerance" of endosulfan residue on food.[2]

[edit]Taiwan

US apples with endosulfan are now allowed to be exported to Taiwan although the ROC government denied any U.S. pressure on it.[83]

[edit]References

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  2. a b "Australia should ban endosulfan: Greens"Weekly Times(News Limited). January 8, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-08.
  3. ^ Cone, Marla. EPA Bans Pesticide Found on Cucumbers, Zucchini, Green Beans and Other Vegetables. The Daily Green.June 10, 2010.
  4. a b c d "EPA Action to Terminate Endosulfan"United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
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  8. a b Government of Canada (January 10, 2009). "Endosulfan: Canada's submission of information specified in Annex E of". Retrieved 2009-01-29.
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